Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Polyphenols, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Edible Leaves
Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries & Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2018, 7(9), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7090117
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cooking (boiling, steaming, and frying) on polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of six edible leaves. The total antioxidant capacity of the fresh and cooked leaves was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and singlet oxygen scavenging assays. The results revealed that frying caused a reduction in major bioactives and antioxidant activities in all leafy vegetables tested. However, steamed and boiled leaves of C. auriculata and C. asiatica have shown greater levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity compared with fresh leaves. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents of boiled S. grandiflora and G. lactiferum were higher than that of their fresh form. Boiled and steamed O. zeylanica and S. grandiflora have shown higher carotenoids. Boiled and steamed leaves of P. edulis have shown higher antioxidant activity. The impact of cooking on the changes in bioactive concentrations and antioxidant capacities are dependent on the species and the method of cooking.