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Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study
Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University-York, 1031 Edgecomb Avenue, York, PA 17403, USA
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Received: 20 May 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Abstract: Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.
Keywords: antioxidant; spice extracts; wine; DPPH; total phenols
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MDPI and ACS Style
Lugemwa, F.N.; Snyder, A.L.; Shaikh, K. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study. Antioxidants 2013, 2, 110-121.
Lugemwa FN, Snyder AL, Shaikh K. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study. Antioxidants. 2013; 2(3):110-121.
Lugemwa, Fulgentius N.; Snyder, Amanda L.; Shaikh, Koonj. 2013. "Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study." Antioxidants 2, no. 3: 110-121.