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Local and Relayed Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus

1
Center for Translational Neuroscience, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
3
Department of Biology, Southern Arkansas University, Magnolia, AR 71753, USA
4
ININFA, Buenos Aires C1113, Argentina
5
IFIBYNE, CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1113, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030064
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract

Our discovery of low-threshold stimulation-induced locomotion in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) led to the clinical use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) that manifest gait and postural disorders. Three additional major discoveries on the properties of PPN neurons have opened new areas of research for the treatment of motor and arousal disorders. The description of (a) electrical coupling, (b) intrinsic gamma oscillations, and (c) gene regulation in the PPN has identified a number of novel therapeutic targets and methods for the treatment of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We first delve into the circuit, cellular, intracellular, and molecular organization of the PPN, and then consider the clinical results to date on PPN DBS. This comprehensive review will provide valuable information to explain the network effects of PPN DBS, point to new directions for treatment, and highlight a number of issues related to PPN DBS. View Full-Text
Keywords: arousal; CaMKII; cAMP/PK; gamma activity; histone deacetylase; N-type calcium channels; pedunculopontine nucleus; P/Q-type calcium channels; REM sleep; trichostatin A; waking arousal; CaMKII; cAMP/PK; gamma activity; histone deacetylase; N-type calcium channels; pedunculopontine nucleus; P/Q-type calcium channels; REM sleep; trichostatin A; waking
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Garcia-Rill, E.; Tackett, A.J.; Byrum, S.D.; Lan, R.S.; Mackintosh, S.G.; Hyde, J.R.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J. Local and Relayed Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 64.

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