The nucleus accumbens (NA) and the cingulate gyrus (CG) are two vital limbic brain structures. They have attracted attention as deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets in the treatment of common refractory psychiatric illness. The primary purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge regarding the way that NA DBS affects the CG and vice versa. Methodologically, a thorough literature review was performed. According to the current literature, NA DBS modulates the function of several brain areas including the CG cortex. It specifically causes activation in the ipsilateral CG cortex and voltage-dependent reduction of its blood oxygenation. It also reverses anterior mid-CG cortex dysfunction and decreases metabolism in the subgenual CG. Moreover, NA DBS that induces mirth inhibits the function of the anterior CG cortex and enhances effective connectivity from anterior CG to the ventral striatum. On the other hand, although it is highly probable that CG DBS affects the NA, the exact nature of its effects remains unclear. Despite the increasing interest in psychiatric DBS, the available data on how NA DBS affects the CG and vice versa are restricted. This conclusion probably reflects the high complexity of the limbic circuits and necessitates further research.
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