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On Variation in Mindfulness Training: A Multimodal Study of Brief Open Monitoring Meditation on Error Monitoring
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A Brief Review of the EEG Literature on Mindfulness and Fear Extinction and its Potential Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS)

Discipline of Psychology, Exercise Science, Chiropractic and Counselling; College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, Australia
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Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100258
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 22 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Neuroscience of Mindfulness)
Neuroimaging studies in the area of mindfulness research have provided preliminary support for the idea of fear extinction as a plausible underlying mechanism through which mindfulness exerts its positive benefits. Whilst brain regions identified in the fear extinction network are typically found at a subcortical level, studies have also demonstrated the feasibility of cortical measures of the brain, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), in implying subcortical activations of the fear extinction network. Such EEG studies have also found evidence of a relationship between brain reactivity to unpleasant stimuli (i.e., fear extinction) and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Therefore, the present paper seeks to briefly review the parallel findings between the neurophysiological literature of mindfulness and fear extinction (particularly that yielded by EEG measures), and discusses the implications of this for fear-based psychopathologies, such as trauma, and finally presents suggestions for future studies. This paper also discusses the clinical value in integrating EEG in psychological treatment for trauma, as it holds the unique potential to detect neuromarkers, which may enable earlier diagnoses, and can also provide neurofeedback over the course of treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: mindfulness; fear extinction; trauma; PTSD; electroencephalogram (EEG); neurofeedback mindfulness; fear extinction; trauma; PTSD; electroencephalogram (EEG); neurofeedback
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kummar, A.S.; Correia, H.; Fujiyama, H. A Brief Review of the EEG Literature on Mindfulness and Fear Extinction and its Potential Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS). Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100258

AMA Style

Kummar AS, Correia H, Fujiyama H. A Brief Review of the EEG Literature on Mindfulness and Fear Extinction and its Potential Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS). Brain Sciences. 2019; 9(10):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kummar, Auretta S.; Correia, Helen; Fujiyama, Hakuei. 2019. "A Brief Review of the EEG Literature on Mindfulness and Fear Extinction and its Potential Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS)" Brain Sci. 9, no. 10: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100258

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