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Article

Cognitive and Behavioral Domains That Reliably Differentiate Normal Aging and Dementia in Down Syndrome

1
Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
2
Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
5
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
6
Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
7
Department of Neurology and Sanders-Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Corrado Romano
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(9), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091128
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 22 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Down Syndrome: Neuropsychological Phenotype across the Lifespan)
Primary care integration of Down syndrome (DS)-specific dementia screening is strongly advised. The current study employed principal components analysis (PCA) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses to identify an abbreviated battery for dementia classification. Scale- and subscale-level scores from 141 participants (no dementia n = 68; probable Alzheimer’s disease n = 73), for the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), Dementia Scale for People with Learning Disabilities (DLD), and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales—Second Edition (Vineland-II) were analyzed. Two principle components (PC1, PC2) were identified with the odds of a probable dementia diagnosis increasing 2.54 times per PC1 unit increase and by 3.73 times per PC2 unit increase. CART analysis identified that the DLD sum of cognitive scores (SCS < 35 raw) and Vineland-II community subdomain (<36 raw) scores best classified dementia. No significant difference in the PCA versus CART area under the curve (AUC) was noted (D(65.196) = −0.57683; p = 0.57; PCA AUC = 0.87; CART AUC = 0.91). The PCA sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 70%; CART was 100% and specificity was 81%. These results support an abbreviated dementia screening battery to identify at-risk individuals with DS in primary care settings to guide specialized diagnostic referral. View Full-Text
Keywords: Down syndrome; dementia; cognition; functional independence; neuropsychological assessment; primary care; screening Down syndrome; dementia; cognition; functional independence; neuropsychological assessment; primary care; screening
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harp, J.P.; Koehl, L.M.; Pelt, K.L.V.; Hom, C.L.; Doran, E.; Head, E.; Lott, I.T.; Schmitt, F.A. Cognitive and Behavioral Domains That Reliably Differentiate Normal Aging and Dementia in Down Syndrome. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091128

AMA Style

Harp JP, Koehl LM, Pelt KLV, Hom CL, Doran E, Head E, Lott IT, Schmitt FA. Cognitive and Behavioral Domains That Reliably Differentiate Normal Aging and Dementia in Down Syndrome. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(9):1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harp, Jordan P., Lisa M. Koehl, Kathryn L. Van Pelt, Christy L. Hom, Eric Doran, Elizabeth Head, Ira T. Lott, and Frederick A. Schmitt. 2021. "Cognitive and Behavioral Domains That Reliably Differentiate Normal Aging and Dementia in Down Syndrome" Brain Sciences 11, no. 9: 1128. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091128

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