Cognitive impairment is frequent in pediatric cancer, and behavioral and psychological disturbances often also affect children who have survived cancer problems. Furthermore, pediatric tumors are also often associated with sleep disorders. The interrelationship between sleep disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders and pediatric cancer, however, is still largely unexplored. In this narrative review we approach this important aspect by first considering studies on pediatric cancer as a possible cause of neurodevelopmental disorders and then describing pediatric cancer occurring as a comorbid condition in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Finally, we discuss the role of sleep disorders in children with cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders. Even if the specific literature approaching directly the topic of the role of sleep in the complex relationship between pediatric cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders was found to be scarce, the available evidence supports the idea that in-depth knowledge and correct management of sleep disorders can definitely improve the health and quality of life of children with cancer and of their families.
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