In the Russian Federation, multiple sclerosis prevalence rates vary from 10 to 80 cases per 100,000, depending on region and the nationality of the population. The main characteristics of multiple sclerosis epidemiology in the XX century in this big territory are: (1) steady increase in multiple sclerosis prevalence and incidence rates, maybe because of better diagnosis and treatment, but also changes in environmental/epigenetic risk profile and/or lifestyle factors; (2) increase of the female to male ratio, increase in multiple sclerosis incidence mainly in females; (3) appearance and increasing frequency of multiple sclerosis in ethnic groups, previously free of multiple sclerosis (Northern Tribes, Yakuts and others). The latest data show that in European Russia, the multiple sclerosis prevalence varies from 30 to 80 cases, in Siberia—from 20 to 70 cases, with steady increases, especially in women.
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