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Article

Prospective Trial of CPAP in Community-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

1
Sleep Research Unit, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA, UK
2
Centre for Population Health Sciences, Usher Institute, Old Medical School, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
3
Down Syndrome Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
4
Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Group, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 0XH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110844
Received: 25 September 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Sleep Disruption on Daytime Functioning)
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), but the effectiveness and acceptability of continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP) in this group has rarely been formally assessed. This study was designed as a pilot randomised, parallel controlled trial for one month, continuing as an uncontrolled cohort study whereby the control group also received the intervention. Symptomatic, community-dwelling DS individuals exhibiting ≥10 apnoeas/hypopneas per hour in bed on a Type 3 home sleep study were invited to participate in this study, with follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from baseline. Measurements of sleepiness, behaviour, cognitive function and general health were undertaken; the primary outcome was a change in the pictorial Epworth Sleepiness Scale (pESS) score. Twenty-eight participants (19 male) were enrolled: age 28 ± 9 year; body mass index 31.5 ± 7.9 kg/m2; 39.6 ± 32.2 apnoeas/hypopneas per hour in bed; pESS 11 ± 6/24. The pilot randomised controlled trial at one month demonstrated no change between the groups. At 12 months, participant (p = 0.001) pESS and Disruptive (p < 0.0001), Anxiety/Antisocial (p = 0.024), and Depressive (p = 0.008) behaviour scores were reduced compared to baseline. Improvement was noted in verbal (p = 0.001) and nonverbal intelligence scores (p = 0.011). General health scores also improved (p = 0.02). At the end of the trial, 19 participants continued on treatment. Use of CPAP in adults with DS and OSA led to a number of significant, sustained improvements in sleepiness and behavioural/emotional outcomes at 12 months. View Full-Text
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; developmental behaviour checklist-adults; down syndrome; continuous positive airway pressure; cognition; cognitive testing in down syndrome; adults; pilot randomised controlled trial obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; developmental behaviour checklist-adults; down syndrome; continuous positive airway pressure; cognition; cognitive testing in down syndrome; adults; pilot randomised controlled trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hill, E.A.; Fairley, D.M.; Williams, L.J.; Spanò, G.; Cooper, S.-A.; Riha, R.L. Prospective Trial of CPAP in Community-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110844

AMA Style

Hill EA, Fairley DM, Williams LJ, Spanò G, Cooper S-A, Riha RL. Prospective Trial of CPAP in Community-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(11):844. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110844

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hill, Elizabeth A., Donna M. Fairley, Linda J. Williams, Goffredina Spanò, Sally-Ann Cooper, and Renata L. Riha 2020. "Prospective Trial of CPAP in Community-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome" Brain Sciences 10, no. 11: 844. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110844

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