Industry 4.0 includes digital process transformation, information technology (IT) development, mobile devices, learning software, automation, and robotics, as well as intelligent sensors to collect large datasets, store, analyze, and use them in business, including simulation, virtual reality, and digital twins. The aim of the paper is to characterize the readiness of the enterprise to use Industry 4.0. In the research, a questionnaire survey was carried out on a sample of 276 enterprises mainly from the manufacturing industry. Using explorative factor analysis, the index of Industry 4.0 (VPi4) was designed to determine the level of Industry 4.0 implementation in the enterprises. The results were further verified by a statistical analysis, using Mann–Whitney test and correlation coefficients. The results indicate that the VPi4 index was consistent in terms of distribution when comparing the results on the verification sample. Its results correlate with the subjective perception of the enterprises, and different levels of the index reflect the difference in technological intensity of the industry. The VPi4 index enables the enterprises to determine their own level of current state of readiness for Industry 4.0, to better prioritize business development. The proposed solution categorizes Industry 4.0 components into a useful theoretical framework. Further research offers the possibility of applying the index in other sectors, its relation to the size of enterprises, and updating with respect to new trends in information technology.
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