The urban heat island (UHI) is one of the essential phenomena of the modern urban climate. In recent years, urbanization in China has gradually accelerated, and the heat island effect has also intensified as the urban impervious surface area and the number of buildings is increasing. Urban building density (UBD) is one of the main factors affecting UHI, but there is little discussion on the relationship between the two. This paper takes Hefei as the research area, combines UBD data estimated by Luojia1-01 night-time light (NTL) imagery as the research object with land surface temperature (LST) data obtained from Landsat8 images, and carries out spatial correlation analysis on 0.5 × 0.5 km to 2 × 2 km resolution for them, so as to explore the relationship between UBD and UHI. The results show the following: (1) Luojia1-01 data have a good ability to estimate UBD and have fewer errors when compared with the actual UBD data; (2) At the four spatial scales, UBD and LST present a significant positive correlation that increases with the enlargement of the spatial scale; and (3) Moreover, the fitting effect of the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model is better than that of the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model.
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