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Open AccessArticle

Emotion, Respiration, and Heart Rate Variability: A Mathematical Model and Simulation Analyses

1
Strategic Research Division, Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192, Japan
2
Strategic Research Division, Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5008; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235008
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Models of Biology and Medicine, Volume II)
Although the generation mechanism of the low-frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) is controversial, HRV is a potential candidate in designing objective measurement methodologies for emotions. These methodologies could be valuable for several biosignal applications. Here, we have conducted a simulation analysis using a novel mathematical model that integrates emotion, respiration, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system. Our model has well reproduced experimental results, specifically concerning HRV with respiratory sinus arrhythmia and LF, the relation between HRV total power and the respiration frequency, and the homeostatic maintenance by the baroreflex. Our model indicates the following possibilities: (i) The delay in the heart rate control process of the parasympathetic activity works as a low-pass filter and the HRV total power decreases with a higher respiration frequency; (ii) the LF component of HRV and the Mayer wave are generated as transient responses of the baroreflex feedback control to perturbations induced by an emotional stimulus; and (iii) concentration on breathing to reduce the respiration frequency can reduce LF/HF and the reduction can be fed back to the emotional status. View Full-Text
Keywords: emotion; heart rate variability; baroreflex feedback theory; computer modeling; Mayer wave emotion; heart rate variability; baroreflex feedback theory; computer modeling; Mayer wave
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirabayashi, S.; Iwamoto, M. Emotion, Respiration, and Heart Rate Variability: A Mathematical Model and Simulation Analyses. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5008.

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