Prior to the establishment of the Roman rite with its Gregorian chant, in the Iberian Peninsula and Southern France the Mozarabic rite, with its own tradition of chant, was dominant from the sixth until the eleventh century. Few of these chants are preserved in pitch readable notation and thousands exist only in manuscripts using adiastematic neumes which specify only melodic contour relations and not exact intervals. Though their precise melodies appear to be forever lost it is possible to use computational machine learning and statistical sequence generation methods to produce plausible realizations. Pieces from the León antiphoner, dating from the early tenth century, were encoded into templates then instantiated by sampling from a statistical model trained on pitch-readable Gregorian chants. A concert of ten Mozarabic chant realizations was performed at a music festival in the Netherlands. This study shows that it is possible to construct realizations for incomplete ancient cultural remnants using only partial information compiled into templates, combined with statistical models learned from extant pieces to fill the templates.
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