Next Article in Journal
Space Charge Accumulation and Decay in Dielectric Materials with Dual Discrete Traps
Previous Article in Journal
Distinct Bacterial Consortia Established in ETBE-Degrading Enrichments from a Polluted Aquifer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dynamics of Multipole Solitons and Vortex Solitons in PT-Symmetric Triangular Lattices with Nonlocal Nonlinearity
Open AccessReview

Off-Resonance Control and All-Optical Switching: Expanded Dimensions in Nonlinear Optics

School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4252; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204252
Received: 6 September 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nonlinear Optics at the Nanoscale)
The theory of non-resonant optical processes with intrinsic optical nonlinearity, such as harmonic generation, has been widely understood since the advent of the laser. In general, such effects involve multiphoton interactions that change the population of each input optical mode or modes. However, nonlinear effects can also arise through the input of an off-resonant laser beam that itself emerges unchanged. Many such effects have been largely overlooked. Using a quantum electrodynamical framework, this review provides detail on such optically nonlinear mechanisms that allow for a controlled increase or decrease in the intensity of linear absorption and fluorescence and in the efficiency of resonance energy transfer. The rate modifications responsible for these effects were achieved by the simultaneous application of an off-resonant beam with a moderate intensity, acting in a sense as an optical catalyst, conferring a new dimension of optical nonlinearity upon photoactive materials. It is shown that, in certain configurations, these mechanisms provide the basis for all-optical switching, i.e., the control of light-by-light, including an optical transistor scheme. The conclusion outlines other recently proposed all-optical switching systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonlinear optics; all-optical switch; absorption; fluorescence; resonance energy transfer; FRET; second harmonic generation; laser action; optical transistor; multiphoton process nonlinear optics; all-optical switch; absorption; fluorescence; resonance energy transfer; FRET; second harmonic generation; laser action; optical transistor; multiphoton process
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bradshaw, D.S.; Forbes, K.A.; Andrews, D.L. Off-Resonance Control and All-Optical Switching: Expanded Dimensions in Nonlinear Optics. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4252.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop