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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 247;

Static Structures in Leaky Mode Waveguides

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
It is an invited paper for the special issue.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography, 3D Imaging and 3D Display)
PDF [2322 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]


In this work, we suggest a new method of expanding the field of view in bottom-exit, leaky mode devices for transparent, monolithic, holographic, near-eye display. In this approach, we propose the use of static, laser-induced, grating structures within the device substrate to break the leaky mode light into diffracted orders. We then propose to use carefully timed illumination pulses to select which diffracted order is visible to the eye at every display refresh interval (up to 100 kHz). Each of these orders becomes a view for a different image point. To describe this new method, we use K-vector analysis. We give the relevant equations and a list of parameters which lead to a near-eye geometry with little or no overlap in higher-order view zones. We conclude that it should be possible to increase the field of view of our bottom-exit, leaky mode devices by as much as one order of magnitude by simply adding a laser-induced grating structure to the substrate and by carefully timing the device illumination. If successful, this method would make possible a transparent, holographic, near-eye display that is simple to fabricate, relative to pixelated approaches, and which has a wide field-of-view relative to our current bottom-exit displays. View Full-Text
Keywords: near-eye display; leaky mode; lithium niobate; holographic video; augmented reality; 3D display; acousto-optic modulator; laser-induced structures near-eye display; leaky mode; lithium niobate; holographic video; augmented reality; 3D display; acousto-optic modulator; laser-induced structures

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Pettingill, D.; Kurtz, D.; Smalley, D. Static Structures in Leaky Mode Waveguides. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 247.

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