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The Optimized Production of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural and Related Products from Spent Coffee Grounds

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
2
Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3369; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163369
Received: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
PDF [3255 KB, uploaded 15 August 2019]

Abstract

The increasing consumption of coffee worldwide has led to higher amounts of spent coffee grounds (SCG) being produced which are generally disposed of in landfill or used as compost. However, the wide range of molecules present in SCG such as saccharides, lignin, lipids and proteins give this biomass source a large chemical functionality. In this work, SCG were fractionated to separate the components into three separate portions for further valorization; these were hemicellulose-enriched fractions (HEF), lignin-enriched fraction (LEF) and cellulose-enriched fraction (CEF). HEF was effectively used in the growth of the oleaginous yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima, additionally, the C6 sugars present in this fraction suggests that it can be used in the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The LEF had a considerable high heating value (HHV) and would be suitable as a biofuel component for combustion. CEF was efficiently used in the production of HMF as 0.35 g of this product were obtained from 10 g of SCG. Such results demonstrate that SCG can be effectively used in the production of HMF within a biorefinery concept.
Keywords: spent coffee grounds; biomass; fractionation; cellulose; hemicellulose; lignin; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural spent coffee grounds; biomass; fractionation; cellulose; hemicellulose; lignin; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pereira, A.P.; Woodman, T.J.; Brahmbhatt, P.; Chuck, C.J. The Optimized Production of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural and Related Products from Spent Coffee Grounds. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3369.

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