Studies have revealed that applications using virtual and augmented reality provide immersion, motivation, fun and engagement. However, to date, few studies have researched how users with Down syndrome interact with these technologies. This research has identified the most commonly used interactive 3D gestures according to the literature and tested eight of these using Oculus, Atheer and Leap Motion technologies. By applying MANOVAs to measurements of the time taken to complete each gesture and the success rate of each gesture when performed by participants with Down syndrome versus neurotypical participants, it was determined that significant difference was not shown for age or gender between these two sample groups. From the results, a difference was only demonstrated for the independent variable Down syndrome when analysed as a group. By using ANOVAs, it was determined that both groups found it easier to perform the gestures Stop, Point, Pan and Grab; thus, it is argued that these gestures should be used when programming software to create more inclusive AR and VR environments. The hardest gestures were Take, Pinch, Tap and Swipe; thus, these should be used to confirm critical actions, such as deleting data or cancelling actions. Lastly, the authors gather and make recommendations on how to develop inclusive 3D interfaces for individuals with Down syndrome.
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