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Aerobic and Anaerobic Biological Degradation of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Rice Paddy Soils

1
School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan
2
Division of Architectural, Civil, and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Saitama 350-0394, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122505
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Organic Contaminants in Wastewater)
One of the concerns against the use of sewage sludge for agricultural purposes is emerging contaminants contained in sewage sludge. Most of the studies on biological degradation of pharmaceutically active compounds in agricultural land were carried out with water-unsaturated soils under relatively aerobic conditions. In this study, the degradation of pharmaceuticals mainly including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated in Asian rice paddy soils that are flooded in anaerobic condition. The experimental results showed that the concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals excluding the exception of naproxen were poorly decreased in anaerobic condition. On the other hand, the microbial communities of the soils contained the aerobic degraders of clofibric acid and diclofenac, which are generally persistent in biological wastewater treatment. The higher degradation rates in aerobic condition suggest the possibility of enhanced degradation of pharmaceuticals by supplying oxygen with plowing anaerobic rice fields or with drying the field in off-season for farming. View Full-Text
Keywords: paddy soil; pharmaceutically active compounds; sewage sludge; wastewater treatment paddy soil; pharmaceutically active compounds; sewage sludge; wastewater treatment
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Nazhakaiti, P.; Tsutsui, H.; Urase, T. Aerobic and Anaerobic Biological Degradation of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Rice Paddy Soils. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2505.

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