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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 941; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060941

Review of Auxetic Materials for Sports Applications: Expanding Options in Comfort and Protection

1
Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
2
Sports Engineering Research Team, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
3
Manchester Fashion Institute, Manchester Metropolitan, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
4
Centre for Sports Engineering Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
5
School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Materials)
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Abstract

Following high profile, life changing long term mental illnesses and fatalities in sports such as skiing, cricket and American football—sports injuries feature regularly in national and international news. A mismatch between equipment certification tests, user expectations and infield falls and collisions is thought to affect risk perception, increasing the prevalence and severity of injuries. Auxetic foams, structures and textiles have been suggested for application to sporting goods, particularly protective equipment, due to their unique form-fitting deformation and curvature, high energy absorption and high indentation resistance. The purpose of this critical review is to communicate how auxetics could be useful to sports equipment (with a focus on injury prevention), and clearly lay out the steps required to realise their expected benefits. Initial overviews of auxetic materials and sporting protective equipment are followed by a description of common auxetic materials and structures, and how to produce them in foams, textiles and Additively Manufactured structures. Beneficial characteristics, limitations and commercial prospects are discussed, leading to a consideration of possible further work required to realise potential uses (such as in personal protective equipment and highly conformable garments). View Full-Text
Keywords: injury; impact; indentation; comfort; protective equipment; negative Poisson’s ratio; foam; textiles; additive manufacturing; finite element modelling; auxetic injury; impact; indentation; comfort; protective equipment; negative Poisson’s ratio; foam; textiles; additive manufacturing; finite element modelling; auxetic
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Duncan, O.; Shepherd, T.; Moroney, C.; Foster, L.; Venkatraman, P.D.; Winwood, K.; Allen, T.; Alderson, A. Review of Auxetic Materials for Sports Applications: Expanding Options in Comfort and Protection. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 941.

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