Next Article in Journal
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Mixing Models for Dual-Phase Steel Microstructures
Previous Article in Journal
A Topological View on Optical and Phononic Fabry–Perot Microcavities through the Su–Schrieffer–Heeger Model
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 528;

Chemical and Molecular Variations in Commercial Epoxide Photoresists for X-ray Lithography

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Paraná, Rua Coronel Francisco Heráclito dos Santos, 100, Jardim das Américas, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [18219 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


The quality of high aspect ratio microstructures fabricated by deep X-ray lithography is highly dependent on the photoresist material used and the process parameters applied. Even with photoresists more suitable to this process, it is common to face defects in the final optical components, such as in case of X-ray gratings. The gratings need to be fabricated with critical dimensions on a sub-micrometer and micrometer scale, with periods of few micrometers and heights of hundreds of micrometers to be used in X-ray imaging techniques such as Talbot–Lau Interferometry. During the fabrication process, these features lead to challenges such as mechanical stability, homogeneity, and defect-free grating patterns. Usually, an epoxy-based negative photoresist is used in X-ray lithography, which needs to account for the shrinkage that takes place during polymer crosslinking in order to avoid defects in the final pattern. Nowadays, photoresist material still lacks certain suitable properties (chemical and mechanical) to fabricate gratings of high quality and with acceptable reproducibility. This work presents the results of TGA, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF analysis made on photoresists commercially available and suitable for X-ray lithography. The photoresists presented different profiles regarding the solvent content and oligomers composition, and in the case of some samples, there were high amounts of non-epoxidized oligomers. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray lithography; negative tone photoresist; microfabrication; Talbot-Lau Interferometry X-ray lithography; negative tone photoresist; microfabrication; Talbot-Lau Interferometry

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vlnieska, V.; Zakharova, M.; Börner, M.; Bade, K.; Mohr, J.; Kunka, D. Chemical and Molecular Variations in Commercial Epoxide Photoresists for X-ray Lithography. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 528.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top