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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040528

Chemical and Molecular Variations in Commercial Epoxide Photoresists for X-ray Lithography

1
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
2
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Paraná, Rua Coronel Francisco Heráclito dos Santos, 100, Jardim das Américas, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Abstract

The quality of high aspect ratio microstructures fabricated by deep X-ray lithography is highly dependent on the photoresist material used and the process parameters applied. Even with photoresists more suitable to this process, it is common to face defects in the final optical components, such as in case of X-ray gratings. The gratings need to be fabricated with critical dimensions on a sub-micrometer and micrometer scale, with periods of few micrometers and heights of hundreds of micrometers to be used in X-ray imaging techniques such as Talbot–Lau Interferometry. During the fabrication process, these features lead to challenges such as mechanical stability, homogeneity, and defect-free grating patterns. Usually, an epoxy-based negative photoresist is used in X-ray lithography, which needs to account for the shrinkage that takes place during polymer crosslinking in order to avoid defects in the final pattern. Nowadays, photoresist material still lacks certain suitable properties (chemical and mechanical) to fabricate gratings of high quality and with acceptable reproducibility. This work presents the results of TGA, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF analysis made on photoresists commercially available and suitable for X-ray lithography. The photoresists presented different profiles regarding the solvent content and oligomers composition, and in the case of some samples, there were high amounts of non-epoxidized oligomers. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray lithography; negative tone photoresist; microfabrication; Talbot-Lau Interferometry X-ray lithography; negative tone photoresist; microfabrication; Talbot-Lau Interferometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Vlnieska, V.; Zakharova, M.; Börner, M.; Bade, K.; Mohr, J.; Kunka, D. Chemical and Molecular Variations in Commercial Epoxide Photoresists for X-ray Lithography. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 528.

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