Introducing Bentonite into the Environment in the Construction Stage of Linear Underground Investment Using the HDD Method
2. Materials and Methods
- determination of the subject and selection of the study area;
- analysis of the scientific literature;
- field work and participation in the implementation of the HDD drilling;
- geomorphological analyses;
- processing of daily reports in the work on HDD in Pęciszów;
- statistical analysis of the obtained results;
- definition of dependence;
- determination of correlation; and
- drilling liquid is introduced to the environment on a much larger scale than that declared by investors; and
- the scale of the loss of bentonite used for directional drilling depends on the type of soil on which the construction works are conducted.
- medium and fine fluvial sands and fluvial muds (cohesive dusty humic soils, locally sandy soils);
- Pleistocene fine sands and lacustrine deposits (silts, dusty humic soils);
- Pleistocene loam and cohesive dusty soils;
- Glacial sandy soils; and
- Pleistocene medium, fine and dusty sands of a fluvioglacial origin.
- the volume of treated drilling fluid per day and the soil formation (type of fraction);
- total loss of material (bentonite) during drilling, depending on the type of soil and the related fraction; and
- the percentage ratio of daily drilling fluid loss (i per 1LM) to the bentonite used.
- Kow (X,Y)—covariance between properties X and Y;
- —standard deviation of parameter X; and
- —standard deviation of parameter Y.
- a positive correlation, where high values of one variable are accompanied by high variables of the other one (and, obviously, the reverse: low values of one variable are accompanied by low values of the other one);
- negative correlation, where low values of one variable are accompanied by high values of the other one; and
- 0 correlation, where there is no linear connection between the two variables.
3. Realization of the Investment Using Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)
- Pilot drilling. The drilling is performed using the drilling rig, drill string, drilling tools, and a navigation system. The circulation system of the drilling fluid is closed. The borings that come out of the borehole, together with the drilling fluid, are separated, the excavated soil is stored behind the separator in waste pits, and the treated liquid is poured into the mixer. Next, the fluid of the appropriate parameters is poured into the buffer, then collected from the buffer and fed by a pump into the drill string and, later, into the drill and the wall of the drilling borehole, supporting the processing of the drilled layer.
- Drilling diameter expansion. The drilling is widened using expanding tools. The process consists of one or two stages. The diameter of the borehole provides an appropriate safety buffer for the installed carrier pipe. The drilling liquid, together with the excavated waste, is transported from the pipe using a transfer pump through a transfer pipeline to the machinery end, where it is separated.
- Installation of the carrier pipe. The pipe is placed on rollers, then fastened to a swivel and pulled into the drilling borehole using the drilling rig and the drill string. During the whole installation process, drilling fluid is fed directly into the borehole (Figure 3).
4. Amount of Drilling Fluid Loss in the Drilling Realization Stage
5. Discussion—Influence of Soil Substrate on the Loss of Drilling Fluid
Conflicts of Interest
Explanations and Future Research
References and Notes
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|HDD||Horizontal Directional Drilling||Modern technology (classified as one of the so-called trenchless methods) that consists in conducting horizontal directional drilling. Horizontal drilling is a type of directional drilling. Horizontal directional drilling enables the construction of various types of installations (water supply pipes, sewage systems, gas supply pipes, and power supply lines) using the trenchless method in all locations, where it is impossible to construct an open trench for pipes or cables.|
|IM, IR||Impact Moling |
|This method consists in directing a pneumatic piercing tool (the so-called mole) through the soil at a specific distance. Pneumatic impact-ramming of steel pipes. In this technology, steel pipes are rammed into the soil using a hammer head, placed in the starting trench in a special bed, which is also referred to as the cradle or platform.|
|PJ||Pipe Jacking||Trenchless method of constructing underground pipelines. This hydraulic jacking technology consists in ramming steel casing pipes into the soil using hydraulic motors.|
|MTM||Microtunneling||Trenchless method of constructing underground pipelines, consisting in the pneumatic jacking of carrier pipes, following the equipment, called the head, which is placed on the front and digs the tunnel, while being pushed.|
Microtunneling is defined as a remotely-controlled, guided, pipe-jacking operation that provides continuous support to the excavation face by applying mechanical or fluid pressure to balance groundwater and earth pressures.
|-||Drilling liquid||Drilling liquid used in the realization of HDD projects is always a water dispersion fluid. The drilling liquid performs vital functions related to the process based on the balance of pressure and flow:|
|-||Pilot drilling.||The stage that precedes the widening of the pilot hole and the installation of the technological pipe using the HDD method. Works are conducted using drilling equipment and the techniques of soil washing, mining with a stream of drilling liquid or the use of a depth engine with a roller drill.|
|Item||Name of Fraction and Sub-Fraction||Grain Diameter (d) in Mm||Soil Name and Grain Diameter in mm adopted for Research Purposes|
|1||Pebbles:||2 < d ≤ 76|
|2||Sand:||0.05 < d ≤ 2.0|
|3||Silt:||0.002 < d ≤ 0.05|
|4||Clay:||d ≤ 0.002|
|Application and Properties of the Technology||HDD||IM, IR||PJ||MPM|
|Deviations from the designed route of the system.||The trajectory of the constructed drilling and the position of the exit point are nearly identical to the designed ones.||It is assumed that the horizontal accuracy of the pipeline construction is 1 to 2% of the length of pipes constructed at one time.||The trajectory of the constructed drilling and the position are nearly identical to the designed ones.|
|2900 m||In one step, up to 80 m of pipeline may be constructed (when borings are transported with a screw conveyor) or up to 50 m (with drilling liquid system).||Depending on the soil and water conditions and the diameter of the pipeline, with the hydraulic transport of borings, the length may reach up to 500 m.|
|External diameter of the drilling ramming or of the integrated pipe.||Max. pipe diameter: 1400mm||Maximum external diameter of the pipeline is only up to 200 mm.|
For directional ramming with a pneumatic piercing tool (the so-called mole), it is possible to install a pipe with a diameter of up to 63 mm.
|The scope of the constructed diameters is 150 to 600 mm.||300 to 3000 mm.|
|Usability of the application of the technology in urban areas.||Drillings may be conducted in strongly urbanized areas.||It is possible to construct short sections of horizontal drilling under construction objects.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects on short sections.||Drillings may be conducted in strongly urbanized areas.|
|Usability of the technology for crossing linear obstacles, transportation routes (heavy traffic roads, tramways and railway tracks).||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects on short sections.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects on short sections.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects.|
|Usability of the technology in areas with a dense water supply, sewage network, power supply and telecommunication lines.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under the network systems.||If the soil is mobile enough, this technology allows motorways to be crossed and home gas or water connections to be installed, etc.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under construction objects on short sections.||It is possible to construct with horizontal drilling under the network systems.|
|Possibility to cross navigable rivers and channels.||Possibility to install facilities below the bottom of rivers or channels.||Application is generally impossible due to the limitations created by the ramming length.||The technology may also be used for constructing pipelines below the ground water level.||The technology may also be used for constructing pipelines below the ground water level.|
|Possibility to cross mountains and hills.||Possibility to install facilities below the rock mass.||Application is generally impossible due to the limitations created by the ramming length. This method may be ineffective in water-saturated soils in low surface friction conditions.||Application is generally impossible due to the limitations created by the ramming length.||Possibility to install facilities below the rock mass.|
|Economic aspects.||The method enables a fast pace of works.||The method enables a fast pace of works.||The method enables a fast pace of works and low construction costs.||The method enables a fast pace of works.|
|Environmental impact during the realization of drilling.||The technology allows the impact in areas that should stay intact due to their natural and landscape values to be minimized.||Application is generally impossible due to the limitations created by the ramming length.||Application is generally impossible due to the limitations created by the ramming length.||The technology allows the impact in areas that should stay intact due to their natural and landscape values to be minimized.|
|Formation||Daily Pro-Gress (m)||Losses per 1 LM (m3)||Drilling Fluid Stream (L/min)||Delivery Pressure (bar)||Speed in PP (m/min)||Time of Discharge from the Bottom (min)||Circula-Tion Time (min)||Rey-Nolds Num-Ber||shearing Rate||Total Circulation/Daily Circulation (m3)|
|Various sand||33||5.4||3300||15||2.6||182||407||1||0.31 s−1||774/7752|
|Various sand||27||6.6||3300||15||2.5||137||316||1||0.31 s−1||438/8760|
|Various sand||22||8.1||3300||13||2.5||82||350||1||0.31 s−1||356/9116|
|Various sand||27||7.2||3300||11||2.5||190||424||1||0.31 s−1||448/9929|
|Fraction Separation Set||Solid Fraction||Product|
|Daily Treated Volume [m3]||Total Treated Volume [m3]||Water: Borehole Volume||Drillings borehole VOLUME||Bentonite||Soda Ash||ClayCutter||Detergent||HydroClay|
|Time of discharge from the bottom [min]||20||97.00||66.38||19.00||214.00||32.25||79.00||155.50||0.48||−1.19||0.90||0.048|
|Circula-tion time [min]||20||281.70||187.11||85.00||897.00||147.75||260.50||365.00||1.93||5.33||0.82||0.002|
|Time of outflow from the bottom [min]||Clay or sand/clay||4||4.50||25.50||29.00||38.50||22.00||48.00||32.00||11.17||8.06||0.045|
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Kwast-Kotlarek, U.; Hełdak, M.; Szczepański, J. Introducing Bentonite into the Environment in the Construction Stage of Linear Underground Investment Using the HDD Method. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2210. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112210
Kwast-Kotlarek U, Hełdak M, Szczepański J. Introducing Bentonite into the Environment in the Construction Stage of Linear Underground Investment Using the HDD Method. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(11):2210. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112210Chicago/Turabian Style
Kwast-Kotlarek, Urszula, Maria Hełdak, and Jakub Szczepański. 2018. "Introducing Bentonite into the Environment in the Construction Stage of Linear Underground Investment Using the HDD Method" Applied Sciences 8, no. 11: 2210. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112210