Optimal Power Reserve of a Wind Turbine System Participating in Primary Frequency Control
Electrical Engineering Department, King Faisal University, Alahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
Electrical Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112022
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
Participation of a wind turbine (WT) in primary frequency control (PFC) requires reserving some active power. The reserved power can be used to support the grid frequency. To maintain the required amount of reserve power, the WT is de-loaded to operate under its maximum power. The objective of this article is to design a control method for a WT system to maintain the reserved power of the WT, by controlling both pitch angle and rotor speed simultaneously in order to optimize the operation of the WT system. The pitch angle is obtained such that the stator current of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is reduced. Therefore, the resistive losses in the machine and the conduction losses of the converter are minimized. To avoid an excessive number of pitch motor operations, the wind forecast is implemented in order to predict consistent pitch angle valid for longer timeframe. Then, the selected pitch angle and the known curtailed power are used to find the optimal rotor speed by applying a nonlinear equation solver. To validate the proposed de-loading approach and control method, a detailed WT system is modeled in Matlab/Simulink (The Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA, 2017). Then, the proposed control scheme is validated using hardware-in-the-loop and real time simulation built in Opal-RT (10.4.14, Opal-RT Inc., Montreal, PQ, Canada).