2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks
Land grabbing is the control whether through ownership, lease, concession, contracts or general power of lager that locally-typical amounts of land by any persons or entities public or private, foreign or domestic via any means-legal or illegal for purposes of speculation, extraction, resource control or commodification at the expense of peasant farmers, agroecology, land stewardship, food sovereignty and human rights.
2.2. Study Area and Data Collection
3.1. Policy and Institutional Arrangement
3.2. Economic Aspect of Forestland Grabbing
3.3. Social Dimension of Forestland Grabbing
3.4. Ecological Aspect of Forestland Grabbing
3.4.1. Forest and Biodiversity
3.4.2. Water Resources
Conflicts of Interest
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|Expert (No. People)||Affiliation||Interview|
|Expert (1)||Headquarter of Japan Forest Agency at Tokyo||Face to face interview||September 2017|
|Expert (1)||Hokkaido Private Forest Cooperative Office at Sapporo||Face to face interview||November 2017|
|Expert (3)||Hokkaido Prefectural Forest Office at Sapporo||Face to face interview||November 2017|
|Expert (2)||Akaigawa Village local Forest Office, Hokkaido||Face to face interview||November 2017|
|Expert (2)||Date City local Forest Office, Hokkaido||Face to face interview||November 2017|
|Expert (1)||Kimobetsu Town local Forest Office, Hokkaido||Face to face interview||November 2017|
|Expert (1)||Hokkaido Sub-prefectural Shiribeshi Forest Office, Kutchan City, Hokkaido||Face to face interview||December 2017|
|Expert (3)||Hotel Manager/Staff at Niseko Town, Hokkaido||Face to Face interview; Informal discussion||December 2017|
|China||Not permitted||In principle, land is the property of the government/state; however, local subsidiaries of foreign-owned businesses may achieve land-user rights with government review and monitoring.|
|Indonesia||Not permitted||Foreign-owned businesses or enterprises may execute on specific land after receiving development or building rights from the government.|
|Philippines||Not permitted||Foreign investors may lease land, which must be used only for investment purpose only.|
|Singapore||Permitted with restrictions||Foreign investors will need the permission from Ministry of Law to own the land and must go through monitoring systems.|
|India||Not permitted||Local subsidiaries of foreign own businesses or enterprises may acquire land-user rights under certain conditions.|
|Bangladesh||Not permitted||In principle, foreign people cannot own any land. However, if the foreign companies register in the Joint Stock Companies and Firms in Bangladesh, they may be considered as a local entity and can enjoy the land user rights.|
|South Korea||Permitted with restriction||Foreign companies will need to apply for the permission of land-user rights in accordance with the alien land law, and after getting permission/notice they can get land.|
|Japan||Permitted in the private own land||Foreign companies can buy private-owned land, in particularly the forestland without restriction (maintains the WTO treaty).|
|Vietnam||Permitted with lease systems||A foreign company or person can lease land from the Vietnamese Government to implement a project regarding the production of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, or salt production.|
|Visited Year||Number of Total Tourist||Amount of Spend Money/Tourist (JPY)||Total Amount of Spend Money (Million JPY)|
|2014||1,210,755 **||125,499 ***||151,948.2|
|Private Forests: (other than national and protection forests)||If the forestland is more than 1 ha in area||Need permission from local government city/town/village office.||Development of hotel, resort, golf course, ski resort, amusement park, factories, roads, soil dump, solar and wind power, etc.|
|Development works in private forests||1. For making road/path||Permission is needed for 3 m wide and over 1 ha land for making road.||Even making the way or path for the construction materials.|
|2. Joint development||Permission is needed even if each owner has less than 1 ha land but all owners together have over 1 ha in land area.||A common plan is needed.|
|3. Step by step development of the land||Permission is needed even if the owner developed the land step by step (each step less than 1 ha land) but in total, the land area is over 1 ha.||In each step, if the development process consists less than 1 ha land but totally over 1 ha, it needs a common plan for approval.|
|General criteria (forest should not any damage) for permission in the private forests||1. Prevent landslides||Through development there is no damage of sediment discharge, collapse, or other discharges occurring around.||Measures should be taken in such a way that the highest degree to prevent disasters and facilities are ensured.|
|2. Flood prevention||Through development there is no risk of flood in in the watershed area.||Securing and adjusting facilities for the flood prevention would be necessary.|
|3. Water sources||The further development activities may not affect the water sources or water quality in the area.||Measures should be taken to secure the water sources and maintain the quality of the water.|
|4. Protection Environment||Any dimension of environment and landscape of the area.||Prevention measures should be necessary through the plan.|
|Protection or keeping forests area||1. For making cottages, ski resorts.||Keep 60% or more forested area.||Maintain tree cover of at least 60%.|
|2. For making a golf course, and leisure activities.||Keep 50% or more forested area.||Maintain tree cover of at least 50%.|
|3. For making Factories and offices.||Keep 25% or more forested area.||Maintain tree cover of at least 25%.|
|4. For making a residential complex, apartment, etc.||Keep 20% or more forested area.||Maintain tree cover of at least 20%.|
|Violation of rules and regulations||Everybody has to receive supervisory dispositions (immediate cancelation/stop) and penalties according to the existing forest laws.|
|16. The governor shall formulate the “Basic Guidelines” on securing land use for water resources conservation zones.|
|17. In accordance with guidelines, the governor can designate the area to be used by the public (surface and groundwater), and if necessary, should secure the land use for conservation.|
|18. Cooperation with the landowners by the Hokkaido prefectures.|
|19. Landowners must maintain the guidelines when using the designated land for further uses.|
|20. Contract of land purchases and selling|
|21. Governor requests the landowner (land situated in water resources conservation areas) to submit a report.|
|22. Revise/correct the notification or report|
|23. The governor should publish or disclose the defaulter statements when he/she is not satisfied by their explanations.|
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