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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 499;

Human-Like Walking with Heel Off and Toe Support for Biped Robot

State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Legs + Walking Lab, Shirley Ryan AbilityLab (Formerly the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago), Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Toshio Fukuda, Fei Chen and Qing Shi
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Robotics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4247 KB, uploaded 23 May 2017]   |  


The under-actuated foot rotation that the heel of the stance leg lifts off the ground and the body rotates around the stance toe is an important feature in human walking. However, it is absent in the realized walking gait for the majority of biped robots because of the difficulty and complexity in the control it brings about. In this paper, a hybrid control approach aiming to integrate the main characteristics of human walking into a simulated seven-link biped robot is presented and then verified with simulations. The bipedal robotic gait includes a fully actuated single support phase with the stance heel supporting the body, an under-actuated single support phase, with the stance toe supporting the body, and an instantaneous double support phase when the two legs exchange their roles. The walking controller combines virtual force control and foot placement control, which are applied to the stance leg and the swing leg, respectively. The virtual force control assumes that there is a virtual force which can generate the desired torso motion on the center of mass of the torso link, and then the virtual force is applied through the real torques on each actuated joint of the stance leg to create the same effect that the virtual force would have created. The foot placement control uses a path tracking controller to follow the predefined trajectory of the swing foot when walking forward. The trajectories of the torso and the swing foot are generated based on the cart-cable model. Co-simulations in Adams and MATLAB show that the desired gait is achieved with a biped robot under the action of the proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: biped robot; human-like walking; foot rotation; virtual force control; foot placement control biped robot; human-like walking; foot rotation; virtual force control; foot placement control

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Liu, Y.; Zang, X.; Heng, S.; Lin, Z.; Zhao, J. Human-Like Walking with Heel Off and Toe Support for Biped Robot. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 499.

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