IoT-Ready Temperature Probe for Smart Monitoring of Forest Roads
2. Materials and Methods
- study housing for use in severe settings with mechanical, chemical, and environmental stress;
- sensor elements at predetermined distances;
- internal wiring with minimized influence on measurements;
- connecting cabling with minimal impact on measurements; and
- hermetically sealed mechanical elements.
2.1. Probe Electrical Design
2.2. Probe Mechanical Design
- polypropylene as a thermoplastic polymer, which is one of the commonly used plastics in many areas of industry. It is suitable for our intended use as a probe housing due to its temperature, mechanical, and chemical resistance. A range of pipes of various diameters is available for use in plumbing installations. Various fittings are also available and the principle of joining them is with the use of a plastic welding machine,
- polyethylene is a commonly used thermoplastic polymer. It is characterized by high resistance to acids, alkalis, and some other chemicals. It is suitable as a probe housing for measuring the temperature profile, also due to its temperature resistance. Fittings and accessories are mostly available, joining is realized by thermal fusion or by using an appropriate adhesive.
2.3. Probe Internal Connection Proposal
2.4. Individual Sensors Position Identification
2.5. Probe System Architecture and Design for Forest Road Measurements
3. Simulation Model and Experimental Measurement Proposal
- Measurement in a water bath to verify the measurement procedure during a step temperature change.
- The measurement starts at ambient temperature.
- The probe is immersed in a water bath at a temperature approximately 55 °C (domestic hot water).
- The measurement is completed after approaching the temperatures measured by sensors 00, 05, 10, 15, 20, 25 and the auxiliary thermometer 04.
- Measurement in a climate chamber to verify the measurement procedure in case of gradual temperature change.
- The probe is placed into the climate chamber and the measurement starts.
- The temperature increases by 10 °C comparing the initial temperature is adjusted in the climate chamber, followed by a dwell time of approximately 6–8 min at maximum temperature. Then the climate chamber is switched off .
- The measurement is completed after approaching the temperatures measured by sensors 00, 05, 10, 15, 20, 25 and auxiliary thermometer 04.
3.1. Simulation Model Proposal
3.2. Simulation Results
4. Simulation and Experimental Result Comparison and Discussion
Novelty of Proposed Solution and Future Research
- analysis of the effect of PUR sealant aging on the response time and measurement accuracy. It is assumed that due to aging, the PUR sealant will shrink and thus the contact between the individual components of the probe will be lost. From a thermal point of view, this will increase the thermal resistance, e.g., between the probe housing and the PUR sealant, thus extending the response time;
- investigation of temperature fields, mainly the temperature gradients along the height of the probe, which occur due to variation in the surrounding temperature depending on the time and depth in the soil layer. This research will require the preparation and solution of a 3D simulation model, including the definition of the temperature profile in the soil depending on the depth below the earth’s surface in different seasons, as well as a description of temperature changes during the day;
- optimization of the internal probe layout with respect to self-heating of the measuring elements, space requirements and dimensions; and
- analysis of several available sealants to design specific probe solutions for environments with special requirements.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Byte 0–1||Temperature registers||Not Available|
|Byte 2||TH Register or User Byte 1||User Byte 1 (UBH)|
|Byte 3||TL Register or User Byte 1||User Byte 2 (UBL)|
|Byte 4||Configuration register||Configuration register|
|Byte 5–8||Reserved||Not Available|
|Thermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1]||0.24||0.4||0.375|
|Specific heat [J·kg−1·K−1]||2000||1840||1900|
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Gaspar, G.; Dudak, J.; Behulova, M.; Stremy, M.; Budjac, R.; Sedivy, S.; Tomas, B. IoT-Ready Temperature Probe for Smart Monitoring of Forest Roads. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 743. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020743
Gaspar G, Dudak J, Behulova M, Stremy M, Budjac R, Sedivy S, Tomas B. IoT-Ready Temperature Probe for Smart Monitoring of Forest Roads. Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(2):743. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020743Chicago/Turabian Style
Gaspar, Gabriel, Juraj Dudak, Maria Behulova, Maximilian Stremy, Roman Budjac, Stefan Sedivy, and Boris Tomas. 2022. "IoT-Ready Temperature Probe for Smart Monitoring of Forest Roads" Applied Sciences 12, no. 2: 743. https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020743