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Article

Bone Temperature Variation Using a 3D-Printed Surgical Guide with Internal Irrigation

1
Section of Dentistry, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Carl Gustavs Väg 34, 20506 Malmö, Sweden
3
Independent Statistician, 36020 Solagna, Italy
4
Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Stradella San Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gavriel Chaushu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062588
Received: 12 February 2021 / Revised: 7 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Materials and Technologies for Implant Dentistry)
Bone overheating is a possible cause of implants early failure. When a surgical guide is used, the risk of heat injury is greater due to the reduced efficacy of the irrigation. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of an additional built-in irrigation on bone temperature variation during implant osteotomy. Twelve bovine ribs were used. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) was performed and a 3D-printed surgical guide with additional built-in irrigation tubes was produced for each rib. A total of 48 osteotomies were prepared, to compare the supplementary internal irrigation system (Group A) with external irrigation alone (Group B), no irrigation (Group C) and with free-hand surgery with external irrigation (Group D). Temperature was measured by three thermocouples placed at depths of 1.5, 7, and 12 mm. The largest temperature variation at each thermocouple showed median values of 3.0 °C, 1.9 °C, and 2.3 °C in Group 1; 2.3 °C, 1.7 °C, and 0.9 °C in Group 2; 3.2 °C, 1.6 °C, and 2.0 °C in Group 3; 2.0 °C, 2.0 °C, and 1.3 °C in Group 4, respectively. No differences were found among the four groups. In general, the highest temperature increase was observed with the use of the first drill (cortical perforator). Post-experimental CBCT revealed the presence of radiopaque material clogging the aperture of the internal irrigation channels. Additional internal irrigation was not found to significantly contribute to decrease bone temperature in this ex vivo setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental implants; guided surgery; irrigation system; three-dimensional printing; osteotomy; overheating dental implants; guided surgery; irrigation system; three-dimensional printing; osteotomy; overheating
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stocchero, M.; Sivolella, S.; Brunello, G.; Zoppello, A.; Cavallin, F.; Biasetto, L. Bone Temperature Variation Using a 3D-Printed Surgical Guide with Internal Irrigation. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2588. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062588

AMA Style

Stocchero M, Sivolella S, Brunello G, Zoppello A, Cavallin F, Biasetto L. Bone Temperature Variation Using a 3D-Printed Surgical Guide with Internal Irrigation. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(6):2588. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stocchero, Michele, Stefano Sivolella, Giulia Brunello, Arianna Zoppello, Francesco Cavallin, and Lisa Biasetto. 2021. "Bone Temperature Variation Using a 3D-Printed Surgical Guide with Internal Irrigation" Applied Sciences 11, no. 6: 2588. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062588

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