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Article

Influence of Altitude and Image Overlap on Minimum Mapping Size of Chemical in Non-Destructive Trace Detection Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing and GIS, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Byoung-Kwan Cho
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062586
Received: 10 December 2020 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
The increasing threat of explosives is a serious issue affecting socio-economy of many countries at multiple levels, such as public security, unused arable land, closing of trade routes, isolation of villages, and these act as a hindrance in the development of the country. Activities using explosives have increased in the last two decades making it a global threat that is challenging humanity. In this study, different chemicals such as Ammonium Nitrate (AN), Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and C4 along with soil as the background material were used for trace detection. The aim of this study was to determine an altitude for the sensor and to identify the minimum mapping size of the chemical at which the model can achieve 70% accuracy. To determine the altitude and minimum size of the chemical that can be detected in the acceptable range of accuracy, several experiments were performed in real ground conditions. This study focuses on the applicability of the proposed method in the real world. In the first set of experiments, the altitude of the sensor was varied from 40 cm to 150 cm and the accuracy of the model was determined. From the analysis, it was found that the model achieved more than 75% accuracy at an altitude of 90 cm with an image overlap of 70%. In the second set of experiments, the minimum size of chemical sample was varied from 0.25 cm to 1 cm. The accuracy of the model was more than 70% when the minimum sample size was 0.5 cm or greater. For various altitude determined, the speed of the vehicle was calculated. Therefore, to implement hyperspectral imaging system on the unarmed vehicle for real application, the suggested altitude and speed of the sensor should be around 90 cm and 10.5 cm/s at which detection limit would be equal or more than 0.5 cm with accuracy greater than 70%. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; trace detection; minimum mapping hyperspectral imaging; trace detection; minimum mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chaudhary, S.; Ninsawat, S.; Nakamura, T. Influence of Altitude and Image Overlap on Minimum Mapping Size of Chemical in Non-Destructive Trace Detection Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062586

AMA Style

Chaudhary S, Ninsawat S, Nakamura T. Influence of Altitude and Image Overlap on Minimum Mapping Size of Chemical in Non-Destructive Trace Detection Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(6):2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chaudhary, Siddharth, Sarawut Ninsawat, and Tai Nakamura. 2021. "Influence of Altitude and Image Overlap on Minimum Mapping Size of Chemical in Non-Destructive Trace Detection Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing" Applied Sciences 11, no. 6: 2586. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062586

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