Current Status and Consideration of Support/Care Robots for Stand-Up Motion
2. Methodology and Review Perspectives
- Google scholar,
- IEEE Xplore,
2.2. Review Methos
2.2.1. Review Perspectives
2.2.2. Definition of Terms
- Partial assistance and total assistance:
- Power unit:
3.1. Functions and Effects
3.1.1. Partial Assistance
3.1.2. Total Assistance
3.1.3. Partial and Total Assistance
3.2. Assist Form and Control
3.2.1. Assistance System
3.2.2. Power Unit
3.2.3. Designing of Control Strategy
Hybrid Control/Impedance Control
4.1. Functions and Effects
4.1.1. Partial Assistance
4.1.2. Total Assistance
4.1.3. Partial and Total Assistance
4.2. Assist Form and Control
4.2.1. Assist System
4.2.2. Power Unit
4.2.3. Designing of Control Strategy
Conflicts of Interest
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|2011||Tsukahara||T||Estimating STS start intention by preparatory movement.|
Control COP within reference range during STS.
|The operating COP trajectory was controlled to 40.1% of the reference range.|||
|2016||Kamali||P||Knee joint flexion/extension torque assistance using a linear actuator.||Knee joint work was significantly reduced.|||
|2013||Tanabe||T||Use with custom walker.|
Start STS total-assist with the signal to lean forward in the trunk.
|2017||Schmidt||P||Efferent/Afferent torque assistance for hip and knee joints with actuator connection cables and rubber bands.||26% peak torque was provided to the knee joint.|
Gluteus maximus activity reduced by about 60%.
|2015||Kozlowski||T||Use with a front wheel walker.|
Attach the exoskeleton to the ceiling rail tether to assist STS.
|One-third of subjects acquired STS with less training than physical assistance.|||
|2019||Urendes||P/T||STS assist with suspension harness.||ND|||
|2014||Hwang||P/T||Integrated structure of exoskeleton, electric wheelchair and lift.|
Weight assist during STS.
|STS completed in 31 s on average.|||
|2012||Huo||P||Joint torque estimation by torque observer.|
Hip and knee joint torque assistance.
|Maximum muscle activity of knee extension decreased by an average of about 12%.|||
|2011||MORI||T||Use with Lofstrand Crutch.|
Full STS assist with no backdrive.
|STS completed in 5.0 to 11.5 s.|||
|2014||Kimura||P||Assists hip and knee joint torque by estimating motion intention.||Rectus femoris activity decreased to 51.7%.|||
|2012||Quintero||T||Estimating STS start intention by COP displacement|
Guidance with Total assist for standing, walking, and sitting
|Operation completed in 114 s on average|
Consistency between enforcement
|2018||Önen||T||Use with crutches.|
Hip and knee joint torque assistance.
|2019||Vantilt||P||Torque assistance for 3 joints of lower limbs.||The device had the required DOF and ROM.|||
|2016||Park||ND||Torque assistance for 3 joints of the lower limbs with 10 actuators.||ND|||
|2018||Wu||T||Combined with clutch with remote control|
Total assist for hip and knee joint torque
|STS speed is twice as fast as KAFO.|||
|2016||Asselin||T||Use with crutches.|
Total assist in hip and knee power.
|2017||Chen||T||Use with smart clutch.|
Assists hip and knee torque.
|Sufficient joint torque was supplied for STS.|||
|2019||Zhu||P||Assist knee joint torque with a custom manufactured motor.||ND|||
|2010||Eguchi||P||Changes in trunk angle cause STS assistance by the device.||Quadriceps activity decreased by 30-50% of maximum muscle activity.|||
|2013||Mefoued||ND||Allows robust control over disturbances.|
Knee joint torque assist during STS.
|Robustness of control against disturbances demonstrated.|||
|2014||Olivier||P||Joint design that emulates the DOF of the hip joint.|
Hip torque assistance.
|The required hip joint torque could be fully exerted at 70° hip flexion.|||
|2018||Junius||P||Hip flexion/extension torque assistance with a device equipped with redundant joints.||Reduced muscle activity in the gluteus maximus and biceps femoris.|
Oxygen consumption decreased.
|2018||Wang||ND||Exercise intention recognition by BCI.|
Hip and knee joint torque assistance.
|Visual image was about 10% higher in recognition accuracy.|||
|2013||Shiraishi||C||P||Use visual feedback to reduce the difference in utilization between both legs.||Increased floor reaction force on the affected lower limb.|||
|2012||CAO||S||P||Motion estimation with two ropes.|
STS trajectory guidance and reduction of lower limb burden.
|Floor reaction force decreased compared to self-movement.|||
|2018||Takeda||L/W||P||Estimate motion with the minimum number of sensors to reduce the burden on the lower limbs.||The estimated time of movement was 0.005 s.|
The average estimation error was 0.145 s.
|2015||Eto||H||P||Lateral mobile armrests reduce the burden on the lower limbs.||Rectus femoris activity decreased significantly.|||
|2015||Hoang||L/W||P||Reduction of lower limb burden by manipulator that draws the optimum trajectory.||It was judged that the optimum trajectory can be realized by the force of the actuator.|||
|2015||Tsusaka||H||P||Imitate professional assistance skills.|
Posture guidance in the horizontal direction and lower limb burden. assistance in the vertical direction
|It was verified that relatively appropriate assistance is possible under hybrid control.|||
|2012||Salah||L/W||P||Imitate professional assistance skills.|
STS assistance coordinated with user posture estimation.
|The maximum error of the estimate was about 0.04 m.|||
|2015||Asker||L/W||P||Reduction of lower limb burden by 3DOF manipulator.||The maximum power of the power unit is 63% of the body weight.|||
|2011||Saint-Bauzel||L/W||P||STS assistance with 2DOF manipulator.||A steering wheel trajectory that does not cause discomfort to the user was guided.|||
|2013||Yuk||L/W||P||STS assistance by changing the angle and height of the armrest.||ND|||
|2010||Carrera||S||P||Robot towed by rails placed on the ceiling.|
STS assist by prism joint.
|2010||NANGO||C||P||Seat-off assist by the seat follows the thigh angle.||The generated floor reaction force has decreased.|||
|2012||Morita||L/W||P||Emulate professional assistance skills.|
Manipulator reduces STS lower limb burden.
|Knee joint load reduced by 0.5 Nm/kg.|||
|2012||Bulea||L/W||P||Combined with functional electrical stimulation.|
STS assistance that does not require the user’s upper limb muscle strength.
|Floor reaction force was significantly reduced.|||
|2013||Matjacic||C||P||Natural STS guide with a folding chair-type device.||Floor reaction force and muscle activity decreased.|
High similarity of movement patterns was observed.
|2016||Fraiszudeen||C||P||Seat-off assistance with pneumatic actuators.||Raised the seat to 45 degrees within 10 s with a force of 200 N.|||
|2017||Dong||L/W||P||Assisting the natural STS trajectory.||ND|||
|2018||Sogo||C||P||Use only passive actuator.|
Seat-off assistance with gas springs.
|Maximum hip and knee torque reduced significantly during seat-off.|||
|2011||Bae||C||P||Adjust the height and angle of the seat to make seat-off easier.||The higher the seating surface, the less rectus femoris activity.|
Rectus femoris activity is significantly reduced at a seat angle of 15 degrees.
|2017||Suzuki||C||P||STS assistance by constant speed seat rotation.|
Seat-off assistance reduces the burden on the lower limbs.
|Maximum floor reaction force significantly reduced.|||
|2014||Lu||C||P||STS motion estimation by COP pattern recognition.|
Seat-off assistance by changing the angle and height of the seat surface during STS.
|2011||An||H||P||Handrail that moves horizontally/vertically in coordination with the lower limb joint angle.||ND|||
|Year||First Author||Type||ACT||Control Strategy||System||Reference|
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Nakamura, K.; Saga, N. Current Status and Consideration of Support/Care Robots for Stand-Up Motion. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041711
Nakamura K, Saga N. Current Status and Consideration of Support/Care Robots for Stand-Up Motion. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041711Chicago/Turabian Style
Nakamura, Kensuke, and Norihiko Saga. 2021. "Current Status and Consideration of Support/Care Robots for Stand-Up Motion" Applied Sciences 11, no. 4: 1711. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041711