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Article

Building a Realistic Virtual Simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Teleoperation

1
Tecnológico Nacional de Mexico/IT de Tlalnepantla, Research and Postgraduate Division, Tlalnepantla de Baz 54070, Mexico
2
Postgraduate Department, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIDETEC, Mexico City 07700, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jae-Mo Kang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 12018; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112412018
Received: 2 November 2021 / Revised: 12 December 2021 / Accepted: 15 December 2021 / Published: 17 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perception, Navigation, and Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) support humans in performing an increasingly varied number of tasks. UAVs need to be remotely operated by a human pilot in many cases. Therefore, pilots require repetitive training to master the UAV movements. Nevertheless, training with an actual UAV involves high costs and risks. Fortunately, simulators are alternatives to face these difficulties. However, existing simulators lack realism, do not present flight information intuitively, and sometimes do not allow natural interaction with the human operator. This work addresses these issues through a framework for building realistic virtual simulators for the human operation of UAVs. First, the UAV is modeled in detail to perform a dynamic simulation in this framework. Then, the information of the above simulation is utilized to manipulate the elements in a virtual 3D operation environment developed in Unity 3D. Therefore, the interaction with the human operator is introduced with a proposed teleoperation algorithm and an input device. Finally, a meta-heuristic optimization procedure provides realism to the simulation. In this procedure, the flight information obtained from an actual UAV is used to optimize the parameters of the teleoperation algorithm. The quadrotor is adopted as the study case to show the proposal’s effectiveness. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; teleoperation; simulator; unmanned aerial vehicles; meta-heuristics virtual reality; teleoperation; simulator; unmanned aerial vehicles; meta-heuristics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mora-Soto, M.E.; Maldonado-Romo, J.; Rodríguez-Molina, A.; Aldape-Pérez, M. Building a Realistic Virtual Simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Teleoperation. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 12018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112412018

AMA Style

Mora-Soto ME, Maldonado-Romo J, Rodríguez-Molina A, Aldape-Pérez M. Building a Realistic Virtual Simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Teleoperation. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(24):12018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112412018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mora-Soto, Manuel Eduardo, Javier Maldonado-Romo, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molina, and Mario Aldape-Pérez. 2021. "Building a Realistic Virtual Simulator for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Teleoperation" Applied Sciences 11, no. 24: 12018. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112412018

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