The Influences of Local Glacitectonic Disturbance on Overconsolidated Clays for Upland Slope Stability Conditions: A Case Study
2. Analysed Area and Materials—Structural Factors of Stability Conditions
- Areas with active slope processes (with the simultaneous lack of structural predisposition to the formation of large landslides);
- Areas with low or periodic slope activity (with a predisposition to the formation of landslides);
- Areas with no traces of slope activity (determined by the structural predisposition for the formation of landslides).
3. Local Estimation of the Clay Roof Relief Based on Electrical Resistivity Prospection
4. Stability Analysis Results, Their Interpretation, and Discussion
4.1. Stability Analysis by 3D Modelling
- Local elevation limited in the plan (3D analysis);
- Dike-like form (reduced to the 2D analysis).
- Parameters of the strength of the soil medium based on the elastic–plastic constitutive Mohr–Coulomb model;
- The optional shape of the roof surface of Neogene clays.
- Point elevation with heights of 3.5 and 8 m (options PE3.5 and PE8);
- Parallel to the edge of the slope, a dike-like form disturbance with a height of 8 m (D8).
4.2. Stability Analysis by 2D Model (Plane Strain State)
- Structurally complex soil conditions in the area of the upland slopes (especially considering glacitectonic disturbances) require optional stability analyses, which take into account both the spatial variability of the soil structure and the variability of soil strength parameters.
- For a more precise recognition of the spatial variability of the position of the soil layers, it is recommended to use quasi-3D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI; the so-called 2.5D electrical resistivity imaging). This method is necessary to obtain a ‘continuous’ image of the course of the disturbed roof of key structural surface (clays), which can determine the conditions of the equilibrium state of slopes, deep excavations, etc.
- Identification of the Neogene clay elevation with the ERI method made performing a multivariant stability analysis possible. The results of the analysis allowed the determination of nomograms defining changes in SF depending on c’ and ϕ’.
- The variability of soil properties caused by exogenous factors, in particular in the weak zones (e.g., on the clay roof), resulted in an alternation of strength parameters of the soil, which may change over time. For this reason, the use of parametric sensitivity analyses of computational models is recommended.
- The analysed models indicated that the Neogene clay elevations were the main factor influencing the stability of the massif in the slope area. Changes in soils’ strength parameters were the secondary factor in modifying the structural factors of stability. For example, according to applied models, changes in the strength parameters in the range of ϕ’ ± 5°; c’ ± 5 kPa resulted in changes of SF ± 0.2. The value of internal friction angle was a more important factor influencing slope stability, as this parameter considerably depends on the stress state and indirectly on the geometry of the layers building the slope.
- Stability predictions quite significantly depend on the applied calculation techniques, both analytical methods based on the conditions of moment equilibrium (e.g., Bishop) or forces (e.g., Janbu) and modelling using the finite element method (FEM). In calculations of the stability conditions performed in this paper, the influence of the weak layer was taken into account. Both Janbu and FEM 2D methods produced similar results. The values of the SF index calculated by the Bishop and FEM 3D methods were higher than those obtained with the other methods. The overestimation of the stability value in the case of the Bishop method was related to the use of a circular-cylindrical slip surface, which did not coincide with the probable slip surface related to the course of the weak layer (e.g., the weathered roof of Neogene clays, which is a screen for seeping groundwater). In addition, the highest values of SF results in the FEM 3D method require further research.
- The conducted analyses showed the necessity of mapping the structural conditioning of stability and the necessity of deliberate selection of modelling method that takes into account the variability of both geometric factors and strength characteristics. It was proven by the usefulness of the use of geophysical prospection, which enriches the point characteristics obtained from traditional ground exploration by drilling. Thus, local disturbances and their influence on changes in slope stability can be taken into account.
Conflicts of Interest
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Kiełbasiński, K.; Dobak, P.; Kaczmarek, Ł.; Kowalczyk, S. The Influences of Local Glacitectonic Disturbance on Overconsolidated Clays for Upland Slope Stability Conditions: A Case Study. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 10718. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210718
Kiełbasiński K, Dobak P, Kaczmarek Ł, Kowalczyk S. The Influences of Local Glacitectonic Disturbance on Overconsolidated Clays for Upland Slope Stability Conditions: A Case Study. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(22):10718. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210718Chicago/Turabian Style
Kiełbasiński, Kamil, Paweł Dobak, Łukasz Kaczmarek, and Sebastian Kowalczyk. 2021. "The Influences of Local Glacitectonic Disturbance on Overconsolidated Clays for Upland Slope Stability Conditions: A Case Study" Applied Sciences 11, no. 22: 10718. https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210718