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Review

From Femtoseconds to Hours—Measuring Dynamics over 18 Orders of Magnitude with Coherent X-rays

1
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
2
The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nikolaos Kourkoumelis
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(13), 6179; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136179
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 2 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Sub-Microsecond X-ray Science with Coherent Beams)
X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) enables the study of sample dynamics between micrometer and atomic length scales. As a coherent scattering technique, it benefits from the increased brilliance of the next-generation synchrotron radiation and Free-Electron Laser (FEL) sources. In this article, we will introduce the XPCS concepts and review the latest developments of XPCS with special attention on the extension of accessible time scales to sub-μs and the application of XPCS at FELs. Furthermore, we will discuss future opportunities of XPCS and the related technique X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy (XSVS) at new X-ray sources. Due to its particular signal-to-noise ratio, the time scales accessible by XPCS scale with the square of the coherent flux, allowing to dramatically extend its applications. This will soon enable studies over more than 18 orders of magnitude in time by XPCS and XSVS. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray scattering; X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy; X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy; X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy; synchrotron radiation; free electron laser; coherence X-ray scattering; X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy; X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy; X-ray intensity fluctuation spectroscopy; synchrotron radiation; free electron laser; coherence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lehmkühler, F.; Roseker, W.; Grübel, G. From Femtoseconds to Hours—Measuring Dynamics over 18 Orders of Magnitude with Coherent X-rays. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136179

AMA Style

Lehmkühler F, Roseker W, Grübel G. From Femtoseconds to Hours—Measuring Dynamics over 18 Orders of Magnitude with Coherent X-rays. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(13):6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136179

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lehmkühler, Felix, Wojciech Roseker, and Gerhard Grübel. 2021. "From Femtoseconds to Hours—Measuring Dynamics over 18 Orders of Magnitude with Coherent X-rays" Applied Sciences 11, no. 13: 6179. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11136179

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