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From Femtoseconds to Hours—Measuring Dynamics over 18 Orders of Magnitude with Coherent X-rays
 
 
Article

Analysis Strategies for MHz XPCS at the European XFEL

1
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
2
AlbaNova University Center, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
3
The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany
4
European X-ray Free-Electron Laser Facility, Holzkoppel 4, 22869 Schenefeld, Germany
5
Center for Molecular Water Science CMWS, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Blue Yonder GmbH, Oberbaumbrücke 1, 20457 Hamburg, Germany.
Academic Editor: Frank Walther
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8037; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178037
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 26 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Sub-Microsecond X-ray Science with Coherent Beams)
The nanometer length-scale holds precious information on several dynamical processes that develop from picoseconds to seconds. In the past decades, X-ray scattering techniques have been developed to probe the dynamics at such length-scales on either ultrafast (sub-nanosecond) or slow ((milli-)second) time scales. With the start of operation of the European XFEL, thanks to the MHz repetition rate of its X-ray pulses, even the intermediate μs range have become accessible. Measuring dynamics on such fast timescales requires the development of new technologies such as the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD). μs-XPCS is a promising technique to answer many scientific questions regarding microscopic structural dynamics, especially for soft condensed matter systems. However, obtaining reliable results with complex detectors at free-electron laser facilities is challenging and requires more sophisticated analysis methods compared to experiments at storage rings. Here, we discuss challenges and possible solutions to perform XPCS experiments with the AGIPD at European XFEL; in particular, at the Materials Imaging and Dynamics (MID) instrument. We present our data analysis pipeline and benchmark the results obtained at the MID instrument with a well-known sample composed by silica nanoparticles dispersed in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: XPCS; European XFEL; data analysis; dynamics; diffusion XPCS; European XFEL; data analysis; dynamics; diffusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dallari, F.; Reiser, M.; Lokteva, I.; Jain, A.; Möller, J.; Scholz, M.; Madsen, A.; Grübel, G.; Perakis, F.; Lehmkühler, F. Analysis Strategies for MHz XPCS at the European XFEL. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8037. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178037

AMA Style

Dallari F, Reiser M, Lokteva I, Jain A, Möller J, Scholz M, Madsen A, Grübel G, Perakis F, Lehmkühler F. Analysis Strategies for MHz XPCS at the European XFEL. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(17):8037. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dallari, Francesco, Mario Reiser, Irina Lokteva, Avni Jain, Johannes Möller, Markus Scholz, Anders Madsen, Gerhard Grübel, Fivos Perakis, and Felix Lehmkühler. 2021. "Analysis Strategies for MHz XPCS at the European XFEL" Applied Sciences 11, no. 17: 8037. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178037

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