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Article

A Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Networking Protocols: Evaluating MQTT, CoAP, OPC UA

1
Cognitive and People-Centric Research Unit (COPELABS), University Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, 1749-024 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Fortiss—Research Institute of the Free State of Bavaria for Software Intensive Services and Systems, 80805 Munich, Germany
3
Department of Informatics Engineering, University Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, 1749-024 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabrizio Granelli
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4879; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114879
Received: 11 May 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
IoT data exchange is supported today by different communication protocols and different protocolar frameworks, each of which with its own advantages and disadvantages, and often co-existing in a way that is mandated by vendor policies. Although different protocols are relevant in different domains, there is not a protocol that provides better performance (jitter, latency, energy consumption) across different scenarios. The focus of this work is two-fold. First, to provide a comparison of the different available solutions in terms of protocolar features such as type of transport, type of communication pattern support, security aspects, including Named-data networking as relevant example of an Information-centric networking architecture. Secondly, the work focuses on evaluating three of the most popular protocols used both in Consumer as well as in Industrial IoT environments: MQTT, CoAP, and OPC UA. The experimentation has been carried out first on a local testbed for MQTT, COAP and OPC UA. Then, larger experiments have been carried out for MQTT and CoAP, based on the large-scale FIT-IoT testbed. Results show that CoAP is the protocol that achieves across all scenarios lowest time-to-completion, while OPC UA, albeit exhibiting less variability, resulted in higher time-to-completion in comparison to CoAP or MQTT. View Full-Text
Keywords: Internet of Things; networking protocols; networking architectures; performance evaluation Internet of Things; networking protocols; networking architectures; performance evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, D.; Carvalho, L.I.; Soares, J.; Sofia, R.C. A Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Networking Protocols: Evaluating MQTT, CoAP, OPC UA. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4879. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114879

AMA Style

Silva D, Carvalho LI, Soares J, Sofia RC. A Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Networking Protocols: Evaluating MQTT, CoAP, OPC UA. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(11):4879. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114879

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Daniel, Liliana I. Carvalho, José Soares, and Rute C. Sofia. 2021. "A Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Networking Protocols: Evaluating MQTT, CoAP, OPC UA" Applied Sciences 11, no. 11: 4879. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114879

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