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Article

Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) for Nondestructive Prediction of Anthocyanins Content in Black Rice Seeds

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Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
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Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
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Department of Herbal Medicine Resource, Dogye Campus, Kangwon National University, Samcheok 25949, Korea
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Department of Gene Engineering, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea
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Department of Smart Agriculture Systems, College of Agricultural and Life Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Daniel Cozzolino and Koen Janssens
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114841
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 25 May 2021
Anthocyanins are an important micro-component that contributes to the quality factors and health benefits of black rice. Anthocyanins concentration and compositions differ among rice seeds depending on the varieties, growth conditions, and maturity level at harvesting. Chemical composition-based seeds inspection on a real-time, non-destructive, and accurate basis is essential to establish industries to optimize the cost and quality of the product. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the feasibility of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) to predict the content of anthocyanins in black rice seeds, which will open up the possibility to develop a sorting machine based on rice micro-components. Images of thirty-two samples of black rice seeds, harvested in 2019 and 2020, were captured using the NIR-HSI system with a wavelength of 895–2504 nm. The spectral data extracted from the image were then synchronized with the rice anthocyanins reference value analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For comparison, the seed samples were ground into powder, which was also captured using the same NIR-HSI system to obtain the data and was then analyzed using the same method. The model performance of partial least square regression (PLSR) of the seed sample developed based on harvesting time, and mixed data revealed the model consistency with R2 over 0.85 for calibration datasets. The best prediction models for 2019, 2020, and mixed data were obtained by applying standard normal variate (SNV) pre-processing, indicated by the highest coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.85, 0.95, 0.90, and the lowest standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.11, 0.17, and 0.16 mg/g, respectively. The obtained R2 and SEP values of the seed model were comparable to the result of powder of 0.92–0.95 and 0.09–0.15 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the obtained beta coefficients from the developed model were used to generate seed chemical images for predicting anthocyanins in rice seed. The root mean square error (RMSE) value for seed prediction evaluation showed an acceptable result of 0.21 mg/g. This result exhibits the potential of NIR-HSI to be applied in a seed sorting machine based on the anthocyanins content. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro-component; black rice; seed quality; near-infrared; hyperspectral imaging micro-component; black rice; seed quality; near-infrared; hyperspectral imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amanah, H.Z.; Wakholi, C.; Perez, M.; Faqeerzada, M.A.; Tunny, S.S.; Masithoh, R.E.; Choung, M.-G.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, W.-H.; Cho, B.-K. Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) for Nondestructive Prediction of Anthocyanins Content in Black Rice Seeds. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 4841. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114841

AMA Style

Amanah HZ, Wakholi C, Perez M, Faqeerzada MA, Tunny SS, Masithoh RE, Choung M-G, Kim K-H, Lee W-H, Cho B-K. Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) for Nondestructive Prediction of Anthocyanins Content in Black Rice Seeds. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(11):4841. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114841

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amanah, Hanim Z., Collins Wakholi, Mukasa Perez, Mohammad A. Faqeerzada, Salma S. Tunny, Rudiati E. Masithoh, Myoung-Gun Choung, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Wang-Hee Lee, and Byoung-Kwan Cho. 2021. "Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) for Nondestructive Prediction of Anthocyanins Content in Black Rice Seeds" Applied Sciences 11, no. 11: 4841. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114841

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