Next Article in Journal
Experimental Validation on Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms of Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection
Next Article in Special Issue
Conventional and Enzyme-Assisted Extraction of Rosemary Leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): Toward a Greener Approach to High Added-Value Extracts
Previous Article in Journal
Thermo-Chemical Treatment for Carcass Disposal and the Application of Treated Carcass as Compost
Previous Article in Special Issue
Valorization Potential of Oilseed Cakes by Subcritical Water Extraction
 
 
Article

Sustainable Biosynthesis of Antioxidants from Koji Rice Fermented with Aspergillus flavus Using Microwave-Assisted Extraction

1
Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah 61004, Iraq
2
Department of Plant Soil and Agricultural Systems, Agriculture College, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
3
Food, Nutrition & Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010430
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 20 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
The present study proposes microwave-assisted extraction as a sustainable technique for the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds from rice fermented with Aspergillus flavus (koji). First, fermentation conditions (i.e., pH from 3–12, five temperatures from 20–40 °C, and four culture-fermentation media viz. wheat, wheat bran, malt and rice) were optimized for producing microbial bioactive compounds. Microwave extraction was performed at 2450 MHz and 500 W for 20, 30, and 40 s with seven solvents (distilled water, ethyl acetate, hexane, ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, and methanol). The obtained results revealed that ethyl acetate is the most appropriate solvent for extraction. Effects of this ethyl acetate extract were compared with a commercial synthetic antioxidant. Antioxidant properties were enhanced by preventing the oxidation of the linoleic acid (C18H32O2) with an inhibition rate (antioxidant efficacy) of 73.13%. Notably, the ferrous ion binding ability was marginally lower when compared to the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Additionally, the obtained total content of phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice (koji) by Aspergillus flavus was 232.11 mg based on gallic acid/mL. Antioxidant compounds in the ethyl acetate extract of fermented rice showed stability under neutral conditions, as well as at high temperatures reaching 185 °C during 2 h, but were unstable under acidic and alkaline conditions. The results demonstrate the efficacy of novel microwave-assisted extraction technique for accelerating antioxidant production during rice fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial antioxidants; biosynthesis; microwave extract; aspergillus flavus; rice; antioxidant compounds; free radical; phenolic compounds; temperatures microbial antioxidants; biosynthesis; microwave extract; aspergillus flavus; rice; antioxidant compounds; free radical; phenolic compounds; temperatures
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Al Rubaiy, H.H.M.; Altemimi, A.; Al Rikabi, A.K.J.; Lakhssassi, N.; Pratap-Singh, A. Sustainable Biosynthesis of Antioxidants from Koji Rice Fermented with Aspergillus flavus Using Microwave-Assisted Extraction. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010430

AMA Style

Al Rubaiy HHM, Altemimi A, Al Rikabi AKJ, Lakhssassi N, Pratap-Singh A. Sustainable Biosynthesis of Antioxidants from Koji Rice Fermented with Aspergillus flavus Using Microwave-Assisted Extraction. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(1):430. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al Rubaiy, Hassan Hadi Mehdi, Ammar Altemimi, Ali Khudair Jaber Al Rikabi, Naoufal Lakhssassi, and Anubhav Pratap-Singh. 2021. "Sustainable Biosynthesis of Antioxidants from Koji Rice Fermented with Aspergillus flavus Using Microwave-Assisted Extraction" Applied Sciences 11, no. 1: 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010430

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop