Improving a Manufacturing Process Using the 8Ds Method. A Case Study in a Manufacturing Company
2. Literature Review
- The company receives customer complaints.
- Safety or regulatory issues have been discovered.
- Internal rejects, waste, scrap, underperformance, or test failures occur at abnormal levels.
- Warranty concerns indicate greater-than-expected failure rates.
- It can be time consuming and difficult to develop.
- Employees that are involved in its implementation should receive appropriate training about it.
- Constant communication among the participants and the application of a continuous improvement program are required.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Develop a Teamwork (D1)
- Use a symptoms checklist to ask the correct questions.
- Identify the need for an emergency response action (ERA), which protects customers from further exposure to undesired symptoms.
3.2. Describe the Problem (D2)
3.3. Develop an Interim Containment Action (D3)
3.4. Define and Verify Root Causes (D4)
3.5. Develop Permanent Corrective Actions (D5)
3.6. Implement and Validate Corrective Actions (D6)
3.7. Prevent Recurrences (D7)
3.8. Recognize and Congratulate Teamwork as Well as Individual Contributions (D8)
3.9. Supplementary Tools in 8D Method
3.9.1. Ishikawa Diagram
- Classifies all causes that are related to a problem.
- Shortens a relatively large problem.
- Encourages the participation of all the teamwork members in the analysis and creation of project management dynamics.
- Increases the role of teamwork in the problem-solving process.
- Identifies the areas that require more in-depth research when some information is missing.
- Provides elements to develop an adequate solution to a problem.
- Offers a concise view of cause-and-effect relationships.
3.9.2. Pareto Chart
4.1. Develop the Teamwork (D1)
4.2. Describe the Problem (D2)
4.3. Develop an Interim Containment Action (D3)
4.4. Determine and Verify Root Causes (D4)
4.5. Develop Permanent Corrective Actions (D5)
- Connector insertion method: This action was implemented because inverted cables were the root cause of the problem.
- Functional test: This action was implemented, since the lack of a functional test was one of the reasons why the assemblies had inverted cables. Functional tests can help solve the problems of noisy motors and dysfunctional motors.
- Template: This action was demanded by customers, because the template guarantees that the assembly component features match the customer specifications.
4.6. Implement and Validate Corrective Actions (D6)
4.7. Prevent Recurrences (D7)
4.8. Recognize Teamwork and Individual Contributions (D8)
5. Conclusions and Industrial Implications
- Implement the 8Ds method to solve problems with other part numbers, and/or in other areas (purchase or sales, for instance).
- Always consider each employee’s opinion, since it will make their work motivating.
- Engage customers’ opinions and ideas to improve both the production processes and their satisfaction.
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Code for the Program on Visual Basic
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|Author||Implementation of 8Ds||Results|
|Mitreva et al. ||The study applies the 8Ds method to solve the problem of a LED diode that does not perform its function in the circuit board.||Employees’ responsibility was improved towards carrying out business processes.|
Fewer operational defects were shown.
Software packages efficiency increase in the application of statistical methods and techniques.
Employees’ participation increased.
Employees’ commitment towards quality improvement.
Full managerial commitment.
Ability to solve problems at all levels increased.
Slightly, but significant improvements in the production processes and products.
Business processes were optimized.
Low organizational job levels were incorporated to the decision-making process.
|Bremmer ||The research analyzes the Scania’s global supply chain and determines how the corporation can guarantee the quality of products by applying 8Ds and other methodologies.||The current production process at Scania is working, but it is requiring some improvements, especially due to the expected growth of the North Bound Flow (NBF).|
|Kumar and Singh ||The study explores the hospitality industry of Delhi and Rajasthan, in India. Specifically, the research addresses the issue of employee turnover in the housekeeping department by identifying both causes and solutions with the help of an 8Ds model for problem solving.||In the hospitality industry, the 8Ds method can be positively adopted to solve problems, especially in terms of employee turnover in the housekeeping department.|
|Zasadzień ||The research seeks to solve problems that are identified in the process of railway carriage renovation by implementing the 8Ds method.||The 8Ds method enabled to identify causes of problems in the railway repair process, as well as allowed the author to develop improvement actions, which considerably streamlined the analyzed process.|
|Mitreva et al. ||This work analyzes the quality assurance system of an automotive company to determine its efficiency. Specifically, the authors studied the company’s business process management strategies (identification, documentation, and control), as well as verified whether the system’s efficiency documentation had been properly developed or not.||The quality and a better productivity at the lowest costs in operation were defined.|
|Titu ||This study relies on the 8Ds method to solve the complaint about a defective part. The study takes place in SC COMPA S.A., a company based in Sibiu, Romania.||60 days after corrective actions were implemented, there were no other pieces identified with this type of defect.|
Thus, the customer decided to withdraw complaints.
|Fuli et al. ||The research develops a quality improvement procedure for automotive companies based on quality management practices. The 8Ds method and the Six Sigma pilot programs were implemented.||The results indicated that the proposed procedure is effective among the studied in Chinese and South African automotive industries.|
|Nicolae et al. ||This work proposes a solution to decrease the response time for the 8Ds method by: (a) warning workstations and warehouses about the appearance of a customer complaint, as well as (b) using a software program for the computerized management of some documents that are needed for the 8Ds analysis.||There are some of the main results: a decreased in the communication time between the quality teamwork and the staff in the manufacturing process, since when a customer complaint is received, it is solved.|
A faster process of collecting information on manufacturing processes during the 8Ds analysis.
A better quality of information that can lead to the resolution of non-compliance was obtained.
Less 8Ds analysis time, especially in the first phase of the method.
A brand-new customer interface that informs customers about the problem-solving steps that are being taken.
The platform is more consistent with the common guidelines for reporting 8Ds analyses.
|Kumar and Adaveesh ||The six-month study was conducted in a spring and stamping company. The research found a high rejection rate (i.e., 17.07%) of valve springs due to defects. Thus, the 8Ds method was implemented to reduce the rate in 4.91%.||The product rejection rate decreased significantly in 6 months: from 17.07%, in January 2014, to 4.91%, in July 2014.|
|Roque and Berenice ||This work relies on the 8Ds method to design and implement new processes for manufacturing dental units with current technology for a company named Briggith. The goal was to ensure the company’s subsistence in the current market.||The standardization of raw materials and variables that intervene in the process was possible.|
Design of new, lighter, and modern structures.
Design of an overall electronic control method for the variables identified in the production process.
Compliance with quality standards established in the project.
|Škůrková ||The research focuses on reducing scrap costs in an industrial company. The author implemented a series of methodologies, including the 8Ds method.||Causes of scrap costs were identified, and corrective actions were taken to reduce such costs.|
|Wichawong and Chongstitvatana ||The research introduces a knowledge management system for failure analysis of hard disks that applies a case-based reasoning. The 8Ds method was implemented for problem solving to design a document template.||The document template was successfully designed.|
The system reported a high customer satisfaction rate, as well as searching effectiveness was acceptable. In summary, the system was successful.
|Vargas ||This work implements the 8Ds method to solve the problem of sudden stoppages in a continuous vacuum batch cooker that is used in a Brazilian sugar and alcohol company.||An effective method combined with quality tools for detecting and solving the problem and eliminating its recurrence was implemented.|
The application of the 8Ds method increased the company’s performance, as well as and contributed to the continuous improvement of its production process. However, the method could also be applied in other type of processes to increase the company’s competitiveness in terms of quality and safety.
|Zasadzień ||The study implements a quality engineering method to improve the company’s maintenance processes in a Silesian production plant. Specifically, the research implements the 8Ds method to reduce machine downtimes caused by bottlenecks.||Machine downtimes caused by bottlenecks were significantly reduced.|
|Pachecho-Pacheco ||The research seeks to optimize delivery times of alteration clothing (Alto de basta and Alto de camisa) products in a tailor shop by implementing the 8Ds method.||Production times decreased by 2.46%, for Alto de basta products (i.e., from 13.30 min to 12.98 min), and by 21.16% for Alto de camisa products (i.e., from 8.49 min to 6.69 min).|
In both products, delivery delay times decreased by 33.33%: from 3 days to 2 days.
|I Don’t Like It||I Can Live with It||I Am Neutral||It Must Be This Way||I Like It Very Much|
|Product or service attribute||Without the attribute||1||0.5||0||−0.25||−0.5|
|With the attribute||−0.5||−0.25||0||0.5||1|
|The 8Ds Methodology||PDCA Cycle||Teamwork Member|
|Develop the teamwork (D1)||Plan||Maintenance engineer|
|Describe the problem (D2)|
|Develop an interim containment action (D3)||Do|
|Define and verify root causes (D4)||Production line manager|
|Develop permanent corrective actions (D5)||Intern engineer|
|Implement and validate corrective actions (D6):||Check||Quality inspector 1|
|Prevent recurrences (D7):||Act||Quality inspector 2|
|Recognize and congratulate the teamwork as well as individual contributions (D8):||All involved employees|
|Motor does not work||7||10%||91%|
|Lack of ID tag||4||6%||97%|
|Wrong cable length||2||3%||100%|
|Indicator||Before Implementing the 8Ds Methodology||After Implementing the 8Ds Methodology||Difference|
|Time for the production process of part number A||7.28 min||4.61 min||−36.68%|
|Time for the inspection and packing of part number A||6.5 min||4.28 min||−34.22%|
|Machines stoppages||155 min/day||35 min/day||−77.42%|
|Production||850 products/day||1141 product/day||+34.22%|
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Realyvásquez-Vargas, A.; Arredondo-Soto, K.C.; García-Alcaraz, J.L.; Macías, E.J. Improving a Manufacturing Process Using the 8Ds Method. A Case Study in a Manufacturing Company. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072433
Realyvásquez-Vargas A, Arredondo-Soto KC, García-Alcaraz JL, Macías EJ. Improving a Manufacturing Process Using the 8Ds Method. A Case Study in a Manufacturing Company. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(7):2433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072433Chicago/Turabian Style
Realyvásquez-Vargas, Arturo, Karina Cecilia Arredondo-Soto, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, and Emilio Jiménez Macías. 2020. "Improving a Manufacturing Process Using the 8Ds Method. A Case Study in a Manufacturing Company" Applied Sciences 10, no. 7: 2433. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072433