The relationship between the average annual collapse probability and collapse safety margin of structures is identified to evaluate structural collapse performance quantitatively. A method is then proposed to determine the acceptable collapse margin ratio (CMR) with a certain annual collapse probability. Two methods, namely adopting steel braces and enlarging column cross sections, are used to retrofit a four-story, low-ductility reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure. On the basis of the acceptable CMR, the seismic collapse resistance of the structure is assessed before and after strengthening. Furthermore, a four-story RC frame structure, which is designed in conformity to the minimum design criteria of the building code, is constructed. The incremental dynamic analysis method is used in consideration of collapse uncertainties. Results show that when the acceptable annual collapse probability is equal to 1.24 × 10−4
, which is calculated using the collapse probability at maximum considered earthquake (5%, as proposed in CECS 392), the collapse safety margin of the four structures does not satisfy the seismic collapse resistance requirements with large collapse uncertainty. The structures that are retrofitted and designed in conformity to the code can satisfy the collapse safety margin requirements when the acceptable annual collapse probability is increased to 2 × 10−4
. The comparison of the two retrofitting schemes used to improve the seismic collapse resistance of the structure indicates that the steel brace-retrofitting method is better than increasing the column section. This work is an important reference for the reinforcement of the seismic resistance of structures and for corresponding research on collapse resistance.
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