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Open AccessArticle

Accessibility Evaluation of Saudi E-Government Systems for Teachers: A Visually Impaired User’s Perspective

1
College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University, Riyadh 11564, Saudi Arabia
3
College of Humanities, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh 11586, Saudi Arabia
4
Computing department, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7528; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217528
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 26 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue User Experience for Advanced Human–Computer Interaction)
The Saudi government pays great attention to the usability and accessibility issues of e-government systems. E-government educational systems, such as Noor, Faris, and iEN systems, are some of the most rapidly developing e-government systems. In this study, we used a mixed-methods approach (usability testing and automated tools evaluation) to investigate the degree of difficulty faced by teachers with visual impairment while accessing such systems. The usability testing was done on four visually impaired teachers. In addition, four automated tools, namely, AChecker, HTML_CodeSniffer, SortSite, and Total Validator, were utilized in this study. The results showed that all three systems failed to support screen readers effectively as it was the main issue reported by the participants. On the other hand, the automated evaluation tools helped with identifying the most prominent accessibility issues of these systems. The perceivable principle was the principle most violated by the three systems, followed by operable, and then robust. The errors corresponding to the perceivable principle alone represented around 73% of the total errors. Moreover, further analysis revealed that most of the detected errors violated even the lowest level of accessibility conformance, which reflected the failure of these systems to pass the accessibility evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: accessibility; usability; visual impairment; evaluation; e-government systems; education; teachers; Arabic interfaces; user experience accessibility; usability; visual impairment; evaluation; e-government systems; education; teachers; Arabic interfaces; user experience
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MDPI and ACS Style

AlSaeed, D.; Alkhalifa, H.; Alotaibi, H.; Alshalan, R.; Al-Mutlaq, N.; Alshalan, S.; Bintaleb, H.T.; AlSahow, A.M. Accessibility Evaluation of Saudi E-Government Systems for Teachers: A Visually Impaired User’s Perspective. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 7528. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217528

AMA Style

AlSaeed D, Alkhalifa H, Alotaibi H, Alshalan R, Al-Mutlaq N, Alshalan S, Bintaleb HT, AlSahow AM. Accessibility Evaluation of Saudi E-Government Systems for Teachers: A Visually Impaired User’s Perspective. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(21):7528. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217528

Chicago/Turabian Style

AlSaeed, Duaa; Alkhalifa, Hend; Alotaibi, Hind; Alshalan, Raghad; Al-Mutlaq, Nourah; Alshalan, Shahad; Bintaleb, Hind T.; AlSahow, Areej M. 2020. "Accessibility Evaluation of Saudi E-Government Systems for Teachers: A Visually Impaired User’s Perspective" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 21: 7528. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217528

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