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Open AccessArticle

Antibiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Piper caldense C. DC. (Piperaceae)

1
Postgraduate Program in Plant Biology, Federal University of Pernambuco—UFPE, Recife 50670-901, PE, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Applied Mycology of Cariri, Regional University of Cariri—URCA, Crato 63105-000, CE, Brazil
3
Research Laboratory of Natural Products, Federal University of Paraná—UFPR, Matinhos 83260-000, PR, Brazil
4
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, 20133 Milan, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Milan State University, 20142 Milan, Italy
6
Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biology—LMBM, Regional University of Cariri—URCA, Crato 63105-000, CE, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020631
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity and Applications of Natural Compounds)
Infections by multiresistant microorganisms have led to a continuous investigation of substances acting as modifiers of this resistance. By following this approach, the chemical composition of the essential oil from Piper caldense leaf and its antimicrobial potential were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by broth microdilution method providing values for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), IC50, and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The essential oil was tested as a modulator for several antibiotics, and its effect on the morphology of Candida albicans (CA) strains was also investigated. The chemical characterization revealed an oil composed mainly of sesquiterpenes. Among them are caryophyllene oxide (13.9%), spathulenol (9.1%), δ-cadinene (7.6%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7%) with the highest concentrations. The essential oil showed very low activity against the strains of CA with the lowest values for IC50 and MFC of 1790 μg/mL and 8192 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil modulated the activity of fluconazole against CA URM 4387 strain, which was demonstrated by the lower IC50 obtained, 2.7 μg/mL, whereas fluconazole itself presented an IC50 of 7.76 μg/mL. No modulating effect was observed in the MFC bioassays. The effect on fungal morphology was observed for both CA INCQS 40006 and URM 4387 strains. The hyphae projection was completely inhibited at 4096 μg/mL and 2048 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the oil has potential as an adjuvant in antimicrobial formulations.
Keywords: pimenta d’água; Candida; fungistatic effect; inhibition of dimorphism; GC/MS pimenta d’água; Candida; fungistatic effect; inhibition of dimorphism; GC/MS
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Bezerra, J.W.A.; Rodrigues, F.C.; Pereira da Cruz, R.; Silva, L.E.; do Amaral, W.; Andrade Rebelo, R.; Begnini, I.M.; Fonseca Bezerra, C.; Iriti, M.; Varoni, E.M.; Melo Coutinho, H.D.; Bezerra Morais-Braga, M.F. Antibiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Piper caldense C. DC. (Piperaceae). Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 631.

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