Next Article in Journal
Multi-View Interactive Visual Exploration of Individual Association for Public Transportation Passengers
Previous Article in Journal
Antibiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Piper caldense C. DC. (Piperaceae)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Non-Conventional Biological and Molecular Parameters as Potential Indicators of Quality and Functionality of Urban Biosolids Used as Organic Amendments of Agricultural Soils
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Different Biofilter Media During Biological Bed Maturation Using Common Carp as a Biogen Donor

Department of Ichthyology and Aquaculture, University of Warmia and Mazury, Al. Warszawska 117A, PL 10-701 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 626;
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 5 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
This experiment analysed the operation of submerged and dripping biological filters with three types of filling: commercial fitting HXF12KLL (CF), two innovative polypropylene aggregates (PPA) and polyethylene screw caps for PET bottles (PSC). The experiment determined the time needed to reach full filter functionality at the maturation stage, the time needed to start successive stages of the nitrification process and the maximum concentration of each nitrogen compound in water in the recirculation systems. The filter operation characteristics after the maturation stage were also examined. These issues are crucial during the preparation and launch of new aquaculture facilities. A literature analysis indicated that the ability of biological filters to oxidise nitrogen compounds is affected by a number of factors. Studies conducted at various centres have covered selected aspects and factors affecting the effectiveness of biological filters. During this study, the model fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used. The current experiment involved examination of biological filter maturation and operation during the carp fry rearing stage, which allowed the biofilter operation characteristics to be determined. At the third day of the experiment, the ammonium concentration reached approximately 3 mg NH4-N/dm3. It remained at this level for 10 days and later decreased below 0.25 mg NH4-N/dm3. The maximum nitrite concentration ranged from 11.7 mg/dm3 to 20.9 mg NO2-N/dm3 within 9 to 20 days and later decreased with time. Nitrate concentrations were seen to increase during the experiment. The all applied biofilter media showed possibility to be used in commercial aquaculture systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilter maturation; nitrogen compounds; recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) biofilter maturation; nitrogen compounds; recirculating aquaculture system (RAS)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sikora, M.; Nowosad, J.; Kucharczyk, D. Comparison of Different Biofilter Media During Biological Bed Maturation Using Common Carp as a Biogen Donor. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 626.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop