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Article

Clinical Evaluation of Stretchable and Wearable Inkjet-Printed Strain Gauge Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring at Different Body Postures

1
Mechatronics Engineering Department/NanoLab, School of Applied Technical Sciences, German Jordanian University, P.O. Box 35247, Amman 11180, Jordan
2
Institute of Microtechnology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
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Faculty of Engineering, Middle East University, Amman 11831, Jordan
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Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
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Medical Device and Technology Research Laboratory, School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK
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Research Centre of Intelligent Healthcare, Faculty of Health and Life Science, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020480
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Health Engineering Volume II)
Respiratory rate (RR) is a vital sign with continuous, convenient, and accurate measurement which is difficult and still under investigation. The present study investigates and evaluates a stretchable and wearable inkjet-printed strain gauge sensor (IJP) to estimate the RR continuously by detecting the respiratory volume change in the chest area. As the volume change could cause different strain changes at different body postures, this study aims to investigate the accuracy of the IJP RR sensor at selected postures. The evaluation was performed twice on 15 healthy male subjects (mean ± SD of age: 24 ± 1.22 years). The RR was simultaneously measured in breaths per minute (BPM) by the IJP RR sensor and a reference RR sensor (e-Health nasal thermal sensor) at each of the five body postures namely standing, sitting at 90°, Flower’s position at 45°, supine, and right lateral recumbent. There was no significant difference in measured RR between IJP and reference sensors, between two trials, or between different body postures (all p > 0.05). Body posture did not have any significant effect on the difference of RR measurements between IJP and the reference sensors (difference <0.01 BPM for each measurement in both trials). The IJP sensor could accurately measure the RR at different body postures, which makes it a promising, simple, and user-friendly option for clinical and daily uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: inkjet printing; respiratory rate; strain gauge; stretchable and wearable sensors; silver nanoparticles; clinical evaluation; body posture inkjet printing; respiratory rate; strain gauge; stretchable and wearable sensors; silver nanoparticles; clinical evaluation; body posture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Halhouli, A.; Al-Ghussain, L.; El Bouri, S.; Habash, F.; Liu, H.; Zheng, D. Clinical Evaluation of Stretchable and Wearable Inkjet-Printed Strain Gauge Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring at Different Body Postures. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020480

AMA Style

Al-Halhouli A, Al-Ghussain L, El Bouri S, Habash F, Liu H, Zheng D. Clinical Evaluation of Stretchable and Wearable Inkjet-Printed Strain Gauge Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring at Different Body Postures. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(2):480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020480

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Halhouli, Ala’aldeen; Al-Ghussain, Loiy; El Bouri, Saleem; Habash, Fuad; Liu, Haipeng; Zheng, Dingchang. 2020. "Clinical Evaluation of Stretchable and Wearable Inkjet-Printed Strain Gauge Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring at Different Body Postures" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 2: 480. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020480

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