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Review

Wax Formation Mechanisms, Wax Chemical Inhibitors and Factors Affecting Chemical Inhibition

1
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
2
Energy, Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organization, Kensington, WA 6152, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020479
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 9 January 2020
When crude oil is extracted out of a subterranean reservoir at high temperature and pressure, it is usually transported via a pipeline, where the crude oil experiences radical changes in its physical and chemical properties, instigating numerous complications. Among the various flow assurance problems, wax deposition and build up are among the most commonly found. However, the accurate mechanism of wax deposition is still unclear and is widely debated among researchers. The mechanism under multiphase conditions is also an ambiguity. This review covers the six wax deposition mechanisms, the challenges in multiphase flow conditions, the latest types of chemical inhibitor, and a summary of factors governing chemical inhibitor performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: crude oil; wax deposition; wax deposition mechanism; flow assurance; molecular diffusion; chemical inhibitors crude oil; wax deposition; wax deposition mechanism; flow assurance; molecular diffusion; chemical inhibitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ragunathan, T.; Husin, H.; Wood, C.D. Wax Formation Mechanisms, Wax Chemical Inhibitors and Factors Affecting Chemical Inhibition. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020479

AMA Style

Ragunathan T, Husin H, Wood CD. Wax Formation Mechanisms, Wax Chemical Inhibitors and Factors Affecting Chemical Inhibition. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(2):479. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020479

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ragunathan, Thevaruban, Hazlina Husin, and Colin D. Wood 2020. "Wax Formation Mechanisms, Wax Chemical Inhibitors and Factors Affecting Chemical Inhibition" Applied Sciences 10, no. 2: 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020479

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