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Open AccessArticle

Auditory Coding of Reaching Space

1
Faculty of Humanities, Institute of Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hanover, Germany
2
School of Physical & Occupational Therapy (SPOT), McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y5, Canada
3
Honda Research Institute Japan Co., Ltd., Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0188, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10020429
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Biomechanics and Motor Control)
Reaching movements are usually initiated by visual events and controlled visually and kinesthetically. Lately, studies have focused on the possible benefit of auditory information for localization tasks, and also for movement control. This explorative study aimed to investigate if it is possible to code reaching space purely by auditory information. Therefore, the precision of reaching movements to merely acoustically coded target positions was analyzed. We studied the efficacy of acoustically effect-based and of additional acoustically performance-based instruction and feedback and the role of visual movement control. Twenty-four participants executed reaching movements to merely acoustically presented, invisible target positions in three mutually perpendicular planes in front of them. Effector-endpoint trajectories were tracked using inertial sensors. Kinematic data regarding the three spatial dimensions and the movement velocity were sonified. Thus, acoustic instruction and real-time feedback of the movement trajectories and the target position of the hand were provided. The subjects were able to align their reaching movements to the merely acoustically instructed targets. Reaching space can be coded merely acoustically, additional visual movement control does not enhance reaching performance. On the basis of these results, a remarkable benefit of kinematic movement acoustics for the neuromotor rehabilitation of everyday motor skills can be assumed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reaching; motor control; sensory-motor integration; audition and movement; proprioception and movement; kinematic movement sonification; knowledge of results; knowledge of performance; visual-to-auditory substitution; neuromotor rehabilitation reaching; motor control; sensory-motor integration; audition and movement; proprioception and movement; kinematic movement sonification; knowledge of results; knowledge of performance; visual-to-auditory substitution; neuromotor rehabilitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fehse, U.; Schmitz, G.; Hartwig, D.; Ghai, S.; Brock, H.; Effenberg, A.O. Auditory Coding of Reaching Space. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 429.

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