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Open AccessArticle

Torrefaction of Coffee Husk Flour for the Development of Injection-Molded Green Composite Pieces of Polylactide with High Sustainability

1
Grupo de Investigación en Energía y Medio Ambiente (GIEMA), Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), 680002 Bucaramanga, Colombia
2
Technological Institute of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Plaza Ferrándiz y Carbonell 1, 03801 Alcoy, Spain
3
Novel Materials and Nanotechnology Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Calle Catedrático Agustín Escardino Benlloch 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6468; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186468
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 14 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Polymer Technologies for a Circular Economy)
Coffee husk, a major lignocellulosic waste derived from the coffee industry, was first ground into flour of fine particles of approximately 90 µm and then torrefied at 250 °C to make it more thermally stable and compatible with biopolymers. The resultant torrefied coffee husk flour (TCHF) was thereafter melt-compounded with polylactide (PLA) in contents from 20 to 50 wt% and the extruded green composite pellets were shaped by injection molding into pieces and characterized. Although the incorporation of TCHF reduced the ductility and toughness of PLA, filler contents of 20 wt% successfully yielded pieces with balanced mechanical properties in both tensile and flexural conditions and improved hardness. Contents of up to 30 wt% of TCHF also induced a nucleating effect that favored the formation of crystals of PLA, whereas the thermal degradation of the biopolyester was delayed by more than 7 °C. Furthermore, the PLA/TCHF pieces showed higher thermomechanical resistance and their softening point increased up to nearly 60 °C. Therefore, highly sustainable pieces were developed through the valorization of large amounts of coffee waste subjected to torrefaction. In the Circular Bioeconomy framework, these novel green composites can be used in the design of compostable rigid packaging and food contact disposables. View Full-Text
Keywords: PLA; coffee husk; torrefaction; green composites; waste valorization; Circular Bioeconomy PLA; coffee husk; torrefaction; green composites; waste valorization; Circular Bioeconomy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortiz-Barajas, D.L.; Arévalo-Prada, J.A.; Fenollar, O.; Rueda-Ordóñez, Y.J.; Torres-Giner, S. Torrefaction of Coffee Husk Flour for the Development of Injection-Molded Green Composite Pieces of Polylactide with High Sustainability. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 6468. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186468

AMA Style

Ortiz-Barajas DL, Arévalo-Prada JA, Fenollar O, Rueda-Ordóñez YJ, Torres-Giner S. Torrefaction of Coffee Husk Flour for the Development of Injection-Molded Green Composite Pieces of Polylactide with High Sustainability. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(18):6468. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ortiz-Barajas, Diana L.; Arévalo-Prada, Johan A.; Fenollar, Octavio; Rueda-Ordóñez, Yesid J.; Torres-Giner, Sergio. 2020. "Torrefaction of Coffee Husk Flour for the Development of Injection-Molded Green Composite Pieces of Polylactide with High Sustainability" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 18: 6468. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186468

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