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Article

Real Time In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Analysis of the Enamel Remineralization by Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP): A Clinical Proof-of-Concept Study

1
Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Dental Specialties, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Via Luigi de Crecchio, 6. 80138 Naples, Italy
2
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70121 Bari, Italy
3
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Centre of Neuroscience of Milan, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors should be considered joint last author.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124155
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 14 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biosciences)
Enamel defects (EDs) are qualitative and/or quantitative disturbances of the dental surface. To date, the responsiveness to remineralizing treatments has been studied ex vivo, on dental sections from extracted teeth. The present research aims to establish if in vivo reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy is able to visualize the changes in the enamel architecture on living teeth, before, during and after remineralizing treatments by casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). As proof-of-concept study, 17 consecutive children affected by EDs were enrolled and 38 EDs were considered. A CPP-ACP mousse was applied twice a week for 6 weeks and clinical and microscopic images were collected before, during and after the treatment for evaluating the changes occurred. For in vivo microscopic imaging, a reflectance confocal laser scanning microscope (RCM) for in vivo use was adopted. In this study RCM was proven to be able to visualize in vivo and at microscopic resolution the changes occurred during the remineralizing processes without needing for dental extractions and histopathological procedures. This in vivo RCM capability could encourage its clinical application in monitoring responsiveness to enamel therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: enamel defects; remineralization; confocal laser scanning microscopy; reflectance confocal microscopy; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate; in vivo imaging; biomedical devices; optical biopsy; therapy; children enamel defects; remineralization; confocal laser scanning microscopy; reflectance confocal microscopy; casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate; in vivo imaging; biomedical devices; optical biopsy; therapy; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Contaldo, M.; Di Stasio, D.; della Vella, F.; Lauritano, D.; Serpico, R.; Santoro, R.; Lucchese, A. Real Time In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Analysis of the Enamel Remineralization by Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP): A Clinical Proof-of-Concept Study. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 4155. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124155

AMA Style

Contaldo M, Di Stasio D, della Vella F, Lauritano D, Serpico R, Santoro R, Lucchese A. Real Time In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Analysis of the Enamel Remineralization by Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP): A Clinical Proof-of-Concept Study. Applied Sciences. 2020; 10(12):4155. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Contaldo, Maria; Di Stasio, Dario; della Vella, Fedora; Lauritano, Dorina; Serpico, Rosario; Santoro, Rossella; Lucchese, Alberta. 2020. "Real Time In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Analysis of the Enamel Remineralization by Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP): A Clinical Proof-of-Concept Study" Appl. Sci. 10, no. 12: 4155. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124155

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