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Systematic Mapping Study on Remote Sensing in Agriculture
Open AccessTechnical Note

Effect of Missing Vines on Total Leaf Area Determined by NDVI Calculated from Sentinel Satellite Data: Progressive Vine Removal Experiments

1
Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), Unidad de Cultivos Leñosos y Hortícolas, 47071 Valladolid, Spain
2
Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Faculty of AgriSciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103612
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Image Capture System in Agriculture)
Remote Sensing (RS) allows the estimation of some important vineyard parameters. There are several platforms for obtaining RS information. In this context, Sentinel satellites are a valuable tool for RS since they provide free and regular images of the earth’s surface. However, several problems regarding the low-resolution of the imagery arise when using this technology, such as handling mixed pixels that include vegetation, soil and shadows. Under this condition, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value in a particular pixel is an indicator of the amount of vegetation (canopy area) rather than the NDVI from the canopy (as a vigour expression), but its reliability varies depending on several factors, such as the presence of mixed pixels or the effect of missing vines (a vineyard, once established, generally loses grapevines each year due to diseases, abiotic stress, etc.). In this study, a vine removal simulation (greenhouse experiment) and an actual vine removal (field experiment) were carried out. In the field experiment, the position of the Sentinel-2 pixels was marked using high-precision GPS. Controlled removal of vines from a block of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon was done in four steps. The removal of the vines was done during the summer of 2019, matching with the start of the maximum vegetative growth. The Total Leaf Area (TLA) of each pixel was calculated using destructive field measurements. The operations were planned to have two satellite images available between each removal step. As a result, a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.986 and R2 = 0.72) was obtained between the TLA and NDVI reductions, which quantitatively indicates the effect of the missing vines on the NDVI values. View Full-Text
Keywords: total leaf area; mixed pixels; Cabernet Sauvignon; NDVI; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; precision viticulture total leaf area; mixed pixels; Cabernet Sauvignon; NDVI; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; precision viticulture
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Vélez, S.; Barajas, E.; Rubio, J.A.; Vacas, R.; Poblete-Echeverría, C. Effect of Missing Vines on Total Leaf Area Determined by NDVI Calculated from Sentinel Satellite Data: Progressive Vine Removal Experiments. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3612.

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