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Article

Concentration of Organotin and Booster Biocides in Sediments of Seagrass Area from Sungai Pulai Estuary, South of Johor, Malaysia

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
3
Department of Human Sciences, Kobe College, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 662-8505, Japan
4
Department of Marine Bioscience, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2019, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020026
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Environmental Pollutants)
Antifouling compounds are widely used in paints applied on ship hulls to prevent attachment of fouling organisms. However, a certain amount of these chemicals could leach from the painted surface, enter seawater, and pose deleterious effects on various marine biotas. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of organotin (OT) compounds and booster biocides in sediments collected from the seagrass area of Sungai Pulai estuary, Malaysia. The sediment samples were collected from three points on the seagrass bed, brought back to the laboratory, extracted using standard extraction procedure, and the analytes were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The results showed that tributyltin (TBT) concentrations in sediments were within the range of 8.1 ± 0.4 to 10.6 ± 0.5 µg/kg, whereas the values of triphenyltin (TPT) were between 17.1 ± 0.9 and 19.4 ± 1.0 µg/kg. The range of concentration of booster biocides, namely diuron, dichlofluanid chlorothalonil, Irgarol 1051, M1, and Sea-Nine 211, were from <0.1 to 22.9 ± 1.1, 48.7 ± 2.4 to 800 ± 40, <0.1 to 6.2 ± 0.3, <0.1 to 1.4 ± 0.1, 44 ± 2.2 to 877 ± 44, and 9.1 ± 0.5 to 170 ± 8.5 µg/kg, respectively. The concentration of organotin was much lower than the previous study conducted in southern Johor. Meanwhile, the increased concentration of booster biocides proves the use of these compounds as antifouling paints in shipping systems nowadays. View Full-Text
Keywords: organotin; booster biocides; antifouling paint; shipping; seagrass; sediment organotin; booster biocides; antifouling paint; shipping; seagrass; sediment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mukhtar, A.; Mohamat-Yusuff, F.; Zulkifli, S.Z.; Harino, H.; Ismail, A.; Inoue, K. Concentration of Organotin and Booster Biocides in Sediments of Seagrass Area from Sungai Pulai Estuary, South of Johor, Malaysia. Environments 2019, 6, 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020026

AMA Style

Mukhtar A, Mohamat-Yusuff F, Zulkifli SZ, Harino H, Ismail A, Inoue K. Concentration of Organotin and Booster Biocides in Sediments of Seagrass Area from Sungai Pulai Estuary, South of Johor, Malaysia. Environments. 2019; 6(2):26. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mukhtar, Aqilah, Ferdaus Mohamat-Yusuff, Syaizwan Z. Zulkifli, Hiroya Harino, Ahmad Ismail, and Koji Inoue. 2019. "Concentration of Organotin and Booster Biocides in Sediments of Seagrass Area from Sungai Pulai Estuary, South of Johor, Malaysia" Environments 6, no. 2: 26. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments6020026

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