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Mechanisms of Primary and Secondary Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer

1
Internal Medicine Residency Program
2
Department of Oncology and Hematology, Kaiser Permanente, Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA; and Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7020014
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) have revolutionized cancer therapy with broad activities against a wide range of malignancies. However, in many malignancies their efficacy remains limited due to the primary resistance. Furthermore, a high percentage of patients develop progression due to the secondary resistance even after obtaining a response or achieving a stable disease. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms that underlie the primary and secondary resistance to ICPis in cancer immunotherapy and provide an overview to impart a broad understanding of the critical issues that are encountered in clinical oncology practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Primary resistance; Secondary resistance; Cancer immunotherapy; PD1; PD-L1; T cells; TCR; CTLA4. Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Primary resistance; Secondary resistance; Cancer immunotherapy; PD1; PD-L1; T cells; TCR; CTLA4.
MDPI and ACS Style

Seto, T.; Sam, D.; Pan, M. Mechanisms of Primary and Secondary Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer. Med. Sci. 2019, 7, 14.

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