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Gestational Geophagia Affects Nephrocardiac Integrity, ATP-Driven Proton Pumps, the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System, and F2-Isoprostane Status

1
Department of Biochemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State 234, Nigeria
2
Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State 234, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Med. Sci. 2019, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci7020013
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
Pregnancy brings about strong cravings for nonfood materials, the gestational toxicities of which are not yet ascertained. In this study, we used rat models to investigate the effect of clay beverage consumption during early and late gestation on p-Type ATPases, nephrocardiac integrity, the antioxidant system, and on the activities of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). The rats at early (7th day) and late gestation (20th) were administered single doses (500 mg/kg body weight) of clay beverage and examined using ELISA and spectrophotometry. The gestational clay beverage intake significantly elevated the renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), anion gap, urinary output, and blood urea nitrogen–creatinine ratio (BUN/Crt). At early and late gestation, clay beverage consumption elevated the heartbeat, atherogenic index of plasma, cardiac risk ratio, and atherogenic coefficients. Creatinine kinase and troponin levels after clay beverage consumption significantly increased with gestation age, while lactate dehydrogenase elevation was independent of gestation age. Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase significantly decreased during gestation and were further altered with clay beverage intake. The rats showed higher RAAS activities during early and late gestation stages but greatly decreased activities after clay beverage administration. When F2-isoprostane and malondialdehyde levels were measured, slight elevations were found during pregnancy and were greatly elevated with clay beverage intake, while the glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels were decreased. We thus discourage clay beverage consumption throughout the entire pregnancy period because of these profound homeostatic imbalances and organ toxicities associated with its consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestation; clay beverage; ATPase; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone; renal hemodynamics gestation; clay beverage; ATPase; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone; renal hemodynamics
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Agomuo, E.N.; Amadi, P.U.; Adumekwe, C. Gestational Geophagia Affects Nephrocardiac Integrity, ATP-Driven Proton Pumps, the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System, and F2-Isoprostane Status. Med. Sci. 2019, 7, 13.

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