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Growth and Safety Assessment of Feed Streams for Black Soldier Fly Larvae: A Case Study with Aquaculture Sludge

1
Protix B.V. Industriestraat 3, 5107 Dongen, The Netherlands
2
Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
3
Salten Havbrukspark, 8120 Nygårdsjøen, Norway
4
Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040189
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insects: Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed)
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Simple Summary

The production of food is an intensive source of environmental impact. In aquaculture, one source of impact is solid waste, which contains high concentrations of minerals, other nutrients, and metals. The larvae of Hermetia illucens are capable of consuming this material, but applying technology that is based on these larvae for managing waste streams, like those from aquaculture, requires careful examination of safety risks. A study is performed examining the growth performance of larvae that were fed on solid aquaculture waste. Then, a thorough analysis of safety risks from inorganics is performed to serve as a guideline for how to assess the safety of waste streams, such as these. The practitioner can use this as a template for the safety assessment for other high risk organic streams as feed for larvae.

Abstract

The production of food is an intensive source of environmental impact. In aquaculture, one source of impact is solid waste, which contains high concentrations of minerals, other nutrients, and metals. The larvae of Hermetia illucens are capable of consuming this material, but applying technology that is based on these larvae for managing waste streams, like those from aquaculture, requires careful examination of safety risks. A study is performed examining the growth performance of larvae that were fed on solid aquaculture waste. Subsequently, a thorough analysis of safety risks from inorganics, with detailed the results on microelements that have previously received little attention in the literature, is performed to serve as a guideline for how to assess the safety of waste streams such as these. Findings confirm existing results in the literature that Cd is bioaccumulative, but also that other elements, including Hg, Mn, and especially K, are bioaccumulative. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first research where the accumulation of Ag is also tested. The results of these tests are explained within the context of regulations in various countries where Hermetia illucens is cultivated, serving as a reference for practitioners to rigorously screen out high risk feed streams that they may consider using as feed sources. It is intended that these references and the demonstrated accumulation of a range of elements motivate comprehensive industry safety practices when evaluating new feed sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: black soldier fly larvae; sludge; mineral composition; safety risks; aquaculture black soldier fly larvae; sludge; mineral composition; safety risks; aquaculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmitt, E.; Belghit, I.; Johansen, J.; Leushuis, R.; Lock, E.-J.; Melsen, D.; Kathirampatti Ramasamy Shanmugam, R.; Van Loon, J.; Paul, A. Growth and Safety Assessment of Feed Streams for Black Soldier Fly Larvae: A Case Study with Aquaculture Sludge. Animals 2019, 9, 189.

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